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Cultural Times

Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries December 2015

T h e st u dy w as carried ou t b y E Y , u nder t h e su pervision of M arc Lh ermit t e, B ru no P errin and S olenne B lanc, w it h t h e part icipat ion of V incent R au fast , H u go Alvarez , J osé ph ine D ru esne, M eh di E ch igu er, D anielle At t ias, B onnie O livier, Lou isa M elb ou ci and G raeme H arrison ( O x ford E conomics) . W e w ou ld lik e t o ex t end ou r grat it u de t o t h e 1 5 0 ex pert s int erview ed w orldw ide, w h ose cont rib u t ion h as b een essent ial t o ou r st u dy and all CIS AC part ners, for t h eir t ime and availab ilit y all over t h is proj ect . W it h t h e init iat ive t o set u p a proj ect aimed at analy z ing t h e cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s in t h e w orld, CIS AC, t h e Int ernat ional ;onfederation of 9mt`ork and ;oehokerk Kocietiek$ coeeikkioned =Q to condmct t`ik ktmdy& L`e hrobect ik t`e firkt of itk cind& ;AK9; collab orat ed w it h t h e follow ing part ners and su pport ers in an effort t o rally a large segment of t h e represent at ive organiz at ions in t h e cu lt u ral and creat ive sect ors for t h is u nprecedent ed st u dy . S tudy sup p orters É?doboÊ — Globo Comunicação e Participações S.A. F CF A — Fonds Culturel Franco-Américain K nowledge contributors L`e Oord\ :ank I CM P — Int ernat ional Confederat ion of M u sic P u b lish ers I F R R O — Int ernat ional F ederat ion of R eprodu ct ion R igh t s O rganiz at ions 9bout ;AK9; CIS AC — t h e Int ernat ional Confederat ion of S ociet ies of Au t h ors and Composers — is t h e w orld’ s leading net w ork of au t h ors’ societ ies. W it h 2 3 0 memb er societ ies in 1 2 0 cou nt ries, CIS AC represent s fou r million creat ors from all geograph ic areas and art ist ic repert oires; mu sic, au diovisu al, drama, lit erat u re and visu al art s. CIS AC is presided over b y elect ronic mu sic pioneer J ean- M ich el J arre and t h e organisat ion’ s fou r vice- president s are: B eninese singer Angé liq u e K idj o, S enegalese scu lpt or O u smane Koo$ Andian hoet$ kcrihtoriter and lyricikt Baved 9c`tar and 9r_entinean file director Earcelo HiŽeyro& >omnded in )1*.$ ;AK9; ik a non%_overneental$ not%for%hrofit or_anikation oit` `eadimarterk in >rance and re_ional officek in 9frica :mrcina >ako!$ Datin 9eerica ;`ile!$ 9kia%Hacific ;`ina! and =mrohe @mn_ary!& w w w . cisac. org | T w it t er: @ CIS ACN ew s | F aceb ook : CIS ACW orldw ide. L`anks ;AK9; ooud\ dike to t`ank ^or t`eir hersonad contribution t`e eeebers o^ t`e ;AK9; \e\icate\ oorkin_ _rouh$ as oedd as executines ^roe ;AK9; eeeber societies$ an\ our stu\q suhhorters an\ knoode\_e contributors2 Y oh an B E AU X ( S ACE M ) , Andrew B E R T H O F F ( S O CAN ) , J ames B O Y D ( IF R R O ) , Coco CAR M O N A ( ICM P ) , M it k o CH AT ALB AS H E V ( CIS AC) , Y assine D AM IL ( S ACE M ) , G rah am D AV IE S ( P R S F O R M U S IC) , R ich ard D AV IS O N ( AP R A AM CO S ) , Crist iane D E LE CR O D E ( G LO B O ) , J u liet t e D E LF AU D ( S ACE M ) , H é loï se F O N T AN E L ( S ACE M ) , Lau rence F O U R CH E T ( S O CAN ) , N eil G AF F N E Y ( AS CAP ) , M arisa G AN D E LM AN ( U B C) , D imit er G AN T CH E V ( W IP O ) , Claire G IR AU D IN ( S ACE M ) , J enny G O O D W IN ( P R S F O R M U S IC) , Andrew H AR R IS ( AP R A AM CO S ) , B ronw en H AR T Y ( S AM R O ) , G er H AT T O N ( ICM P ) , Anit a H U S S - E K E R H U LT ( IF R R O ) , Lau re K ALT E N B ACH ( F O R U M D ’ AV IG N O N ) , Clarissa K E D E ( G LO B O ) , E glant ine LAN G E V IN ( F CF A) , O ph ira LU B N IT S K Y ( T ALI) , B laise M IS T LE R ( S ACE M ) , M art in M O LIN U E V O ( T H E W O R LD B AN K ) , S ilvina M U N ICH ( CIS AC) , B enj amin N G ( CIS AC) , E loï se N IK IE M A ( CIS AC) , Alej andra N oramb u ena S k ira ( F CF A) , G adi O R O N ( CIS AC) , B alamine O U AT T AR A ( CIS AC) , Lu is F elipe P ALACIO S ( S G AE ) , F ré dé ric P AT IS S IE R ( IM V Conseil) , Cé cile R O Y ( CIS AC) , D amien S H IE LS ( T H E W O R LD B AN K ) , P et ra S T E P H E N S O N ( P R S F O R M U S IC) , O lav S T O K K M O ( IF R R O ) , S ant iago S CH U S T E R ( CIS AC) , J u lie T O D IS CO ( F CF A) , Liu dmy la T S Y M B AL ( U ACCR ) , and M igu el V O CE S ( S G AE ) .

Contents 8 10 Introduction The global map of cultural and Executive summary creative industries 14 Overview and megatrends The economic value of cultural and creative industries worldwide 1 30 82 Outlook Cultural and creative Challenges of a more industries in five regions creative world 2 3 90 Cultural and creative industries at a glance 4 94 Voices from the 114 cultural and creative Detailed methodology industries community and sources 5 6

ds or w e or F | 4 Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries

U N E S CO Irina B okova D irect or- G eneral of U N E S CO As w e celeb rat e t h e 1 0 t h anniversary and clu st ers, improving t h e q u alit y of life T h is calls for more dat a and st ronger of t h e U N E S CO Convent ion on t h e and providing resou rces for imagining indicat ors on t h e role of cu lt u re for P rot ect ion and P romot ion of t h e diverse new fu t u res. t h e development of societ ies. T h is is D iversit y of Cu lt u ral E x pressions In ot h er w ords, in addit ion t o it s t h e spirit of many U N E S CO init iat ives, ratified on *( GctoZer *((-$ t`ik ktmdy econoeic Zenefitk$ t`e cmltmral and su ch as t h e Cu lt u re for D evelopment commissioned b y t h e Int ernat ional creat ive indu st ries generat e non- Indicat ors, t h e 2 0 1 3 U nit ed N at ions Confederat ion of S ociet ies of Au t h ors monet ary valu e t h at cont rib u t e Creat ive E conomy R eport , as w ell as and ;oehokerk confirek t`e hooerfml ki_nificantly to ac`ievin_ heohle% t`e firkt ?loZal Jehort to eonitor t`e argu ment advocat ed b y U N E S CO of t h e cent ered, inclu sive and su st ainab le implement at ion of t h e 2 0 0 5 Convent ion. cont rib u t ion of t h e cu lt u ral and creat ive development . I w elcome t h e pu b licat ion of t h is new indu st ries t o su st ainab le development . glob al map of cu lt u ral and creat ive Capit aliz ing U S $ 2 , 2 5 0 b and nearly P u b lic policies are needed t o su pport t h e indu st ries as an import ant cont rib u t ion 3 0 million j ob s w orldw ide, t h e cu lt u ral diverse forms of creat ivit y at t h e h eart of t o t h is glob al effort . and creat ive indu st ries are maj or drivers t h e cu lt u ral and creat ive indu st ry sect ors of t h e economies of developed as w ell as w ell as t o address new ch allenges as developing cou nt ries. Indeed, t h ey posed b y digit iz at ion. are among t h e most rapidly grow ing Convent ion on t h e P rot ect ion and kectork oorldoide& At inÖmencek incoee P romot ion of t h e D iversit y of Cu lt u ral generat ion, j ob creat ion and ex port E x pressions is t ak ing act ion t o promot e earnings. It can forge a b et t er fu t u re for t h e relevance is k ey principles of t h e many cou nt ries arou nd t h e glob e. Convent ion in t h e digit al age. T h is B u t t h at is not all t h ere is t o it . F or const it u t es a cent ral ch allenge ah ead u nlock ing t h e pot ent ial of t h e cu lt u ral of u s: b alancing all int erest s and t h e and creat ive indu st ries also means varied w ay s in w h ich diverse cu lt u ral promot ing t h e overall creat ivit y of ex pressions are ex pressed, au gment ed kocietiek$ affirein_ t`e diktinctive and t ransmit t ed, w h at ever t h e means identitiek of t`e hlacek o`ere it Öomrik`ek and t ech nologies u sed. | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries -

CIS A C P residency J ean- M ichel J arre A ngé liq ue K idj o O usmane S ow P resident V ice- P resident V ice- P resident In ou r capacit y as P resident and V ice in t h ese cou nt ries is no less rich er, y et P resident s of CIS AC ( Confederat ion t h e creat ors t h emselves are oft en poor of Au t h ors and Composers S ociet ies) , and st ru ggle t o mak e a living from t h eir w e are t h e amb assadors of millions of creat ivit y and cont rib u t e t o t h e domest ic creat ors arou nd t h e w orld w h ose creat ive economy . endeavors cover all repert oires — mu sic, W e do h ope t h at t h is st u dy w ill b e an au diovisu al, drama, lit erat u re and visu al ey e opener for policy - mak ers arou nd t h e art s — and carry t h e t orch of t h is cu lt u ral w orld on t h e import ance of providing diversit y t h at w e ch erish so mu ch . W e t h eir creat ive commu nit y w it h a st rong k now , b y ex perience, t h at art k now s legal apparat u s t o prot ect righ t s and no b ou ndary : it is t h e ex pression of allow for a fair remu nerat ion of creat ors. t`e eany different cmltmrek on t`e five Creat ors’ righ t s do not st and in t h e w ay cont inent s. At t h e same t ime, w e are also of t h e economy , q u it e t h e cont rary . very mu ch aw are of t h e fragilit y of t h e T h ey h elp b u ild su st ainab le economies, J aved A khtar st at u s of creat ors in t oday ’ s w orld. t h ey provide local j ob s, t h ey generat e T h is st u dy maps ou t t h e macro economy revenu es and t ax es, and t h ey allow a V ice- P resident of creat ive indu st ries in t h e w orld, w h ole class of people, many of t h em continent Zy continent& L`ik ik t`e firkt y ou ng, t o mak e a living from t h eir t alent . t ime w e h ave access t o su ch a w ealt h of And t h at ’ s t h e ot h er point t h at w e data& L`eke factk and fi_mrek eace for w ou ld lik e all of t h ose w h o w ill read t h is a very interektin_ tahektry& O`at firkt st u dy t o t ak e int o accou nt : never forget cau gh t ou r ey es w as t h e great divide t h at b eh ind t h is massive aggregat e of b et w een N ort h and S ou t h . In developed iehrekkive fi_mrek$ t`ere are individmal economies, creat ive indu st ries t h rive creat ors. E ach and every one of t h em b ecau se of a legal framew ork prot ect ing mak es a u niq u e cont rib u t ion t o t h e t h e righ t s of creat ors, allow ing for overall economy in h is or h er cou nt ry indu st ries t o b e b u ilt from t h e w ork s of in addit ion t o providing t h e w orld w it h t h ou sands of creat ors. creat ive w ork s t h at t ou ch t h e sou ls of T h is is a sit u at ion t h at does not apply in t h eir fellow h u man b eings. many developing cou nt ries. T h e cu lt u re M arcelo P iñ eyro V ice- P resident | 6 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

E Y M arc L hermitte S olenne B lanc B runo P errin P art ner, E Y Advisory E x ecu t ive direct or, E Y Advisory P art ner, E Y & Associé s U ndeniab ly , cu lt u re and creat ivit y h ave u niq u e diversit y of t h ese indu st ries. locomot ive of t h e digit al economy . In b een t h e cement t h at b inds t oget h er And some ch allenges t oo. Consider, for 2 0 1 3 , t h ey cont rib u t ed U S $ 2 0 0 b t o not only h eart s and sou ls, b u t ent ire inst ance: t h e digit al economy . T h e maj or int ernet societ ies and nat ions. In a w orld • 9kia%Hacific ik t`e oorldÌk lar_ekt ;;A giant s of t h e w orld h ave emerged t h at faces freq u ent disru pt ion and mark et , generat ing a t h ird of t ot al t h rou gh and du e t o creat ive cont ent , u ph eavals — economic, social, polit ical revenu es, follow ed closely b y E u rope oZviomkly& ;;A are alko a ki_nificant driver and t ech nological — creat ivit y and cu lt u re and N ort h America. Lat in America, for u rb an development : cu lt u ral h erit age, h ave b een t h e common link t h rou gh and Africa and t h e M iddle E ast rank act ivit ies and event s are accelerat ors of h ist ory , k nit t ing t oget h er ou r past , fomrt` and fift`$ rekhectively È Zmt t`e grow t h and at t ract iveness. Creat ors are present and fu t u re. pot ent ial and opport u nit ies in t h ese ent repreneu rs t oo: in t h e U S , t h ey are B u t cu lt u re and creat ivit y are act u ally t w o regions is st rik ing. 3 . 5 t imes more lik ely t o b e self- employ ed mu ch more t h an t h at . T h ey are cat aly st s t h an U S w ork ers overall. for development . T h ey are an economy — • In E u rope, CCI sect ors t y pically CCI are u ndou b t edly st rong pillars of t h e nearly 3 0 million people across t h e w orld employ ed more people aged 1 5 - 2 9 glob al economy , b u t fragile if not t ak en mak e a living ou t of t h em, generat ing y ears t h an any ot h er sect or. care of. G overnment s w orldw ide are t ot al revenu es of U S $ 2 , 2 5 0 b . • W h ile some w ou ld h ave feared t h at aw ak ening t o t h e t ru e economic valu e T h e moment ou s impact of t h e digit al economy w ou ld st andardiz e of CCI, b u t ch allenges t o t h eir grow t h cu lt u ral and creat ive indu st ries ( CCI) , cu lt u re and creat ion, t h e impact of ab ou nd. CCI need more st ru ct u ring, h ow ever, is only part ially u nderst ood digit al is act u ally t h e opposit e: t h e su pport ive policies and rob u st prot ect ion and appreciat ed. E Y ’ s glob al map is a digit al economy is accelerat ing t h e of creat ive cont ent . T o b oost t h eir grou ndb reak ing init iat ive t o b ring t o t h e diversit y of cu lt u re and creat ion. economic pot ent ial, t h e b alance b et w een fore t h eir economic and social pow er. • Alt h ou gh ex cept ions t o t h e ru le creat ion, access ( dist rib u t ion) and care Init iat ives of t h ink t ank s, su ch as t h e ex ist , t h e cru cial role of w omen in of cu lt u ral h erit age is a mu st . W e h ope F oru m d’Avignon, b ringing t oget h er CCI’ s development mu st b e b et t er t h is u niq u e report w ill su pport a b et t er art ist s, indu st ries and policy - mak ers h ave appreciat ed and rew arded. u nderst anding of t h ese ch allenges, and h elped u nderst and t h e economic w eigh t h ow t o address t h em effect ively for t h e of CCIs. O u r research also h igh ligh t s h ow CCI long- t erm development of creat ivit y and play a decisive role for t h e economic cu lt u re. B esides t h e economic w eigh t of cu lt u re development of b ot h mat u re and and creat ivit y , ou r report sh ow s t h e emerging mark et s. T h ey are already a | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 7

=xecutine sueearq ;udturad an\ creatine in\ustries ;;A! _enerate MK*$*-(b o^ renenues an\ *1&- eiddion bobs oord\oi\e CCI revenu es w orldw ide ex ceed t h ose of t elecom services ( U S $ 1 , 5 7 0 b glob ally ) , and su rpass India’ s G D P ( U S $ 1 , 9 0 0 b ) . W it h in t h e t ot al, t h e t op t h ree earners are t elevision ( U S $ 4 7 7 b ) , visu al art s ( U S $ 3 9 1 b ) , and new spapers and magaz ines ( U S $ 3 5 4 b ) . W it h 2 9 . 5 million j ob s, CCI employ 1 % of t h e w orld’ s act ive popu lat ion. T h e t op t h ree employ ers are visu al art s ( 6 . 7 3 m) , b ook s ( 3 . 6 7 m) and mu sic ( 3 . 9 8 m) . L`e cudturad an\ creatine oord\ is eudtihodar 9kia%Hacific accomntk for MK/,+Z in revenme ++ of _loZal ;;A kalek! and )*&/e boZk ,+ of ;;A boZk w orldw ide) . T h e Asian mark et is driven b y a large popu lat ion, and t h e region is h ome t o CCI leaders, su ch as T encent , CCT V and Y omiu ri S h imb u n. E u rope and N ort h America are t h e second and t h ird largest CCI earcetk& Loday Datin 9eerica$ and 9frica inclmdin_ t`e Eiddle =akt ranc fomrt` and fift`$ rekhectively È b u t CCI play ers see great development opport u nit ies in t h ese t w o regions. T h ou gh sy mb iot ic, each w orld region is developing a moment u m of it s ow n. ;udturad an\ creatine content \rines t`e \i_itad econoeq CCI are a locomot ive of t h e online economy — cont rib u t ing U S $ 2 0 0 b t o glob al digit al sales in 2 0 1 3 . Cu lt u ral and creat ive cont ent also pow ers sales of digit al devices, w h ich t ot aled U S $ 5 3 0 b in 2 0 1 3 . D igit al cu lt u ral goods are, b y far, t h e b iggest revenu e sou rce for t h e digit al economy , generat ing U S $ 6 6 b of B 2 C sales in 2 0 1 3 and U S $ 2 1 . 7 b of advert ising revenu es for online media and free st reaming w eb sit es. ;udturad hro\uction is qoun_$ incdusine an\ entrehreneuriad ;reative activitiek contriZmte ki_nificantly to yomt` eehloyeent and careerk in ;;A are relatively ohen t o people of all ages and b ack grou nds. In E u rope, CCI sect ors t y pically employ ed more people aged 1 5 – 2 9 y ears t h an any ot h er sect or. Creat ive indu st ries also t end t o favor t h e part icipat ion of w omen compared w it h more t radit ional indu st ries. S t at ist ics compiled b y t h e U K G overnment sh ow ed t h at w omen accou nt ed for more t h an 5 0 % of people employ ed in t h e mu sic indu st ry in 2 0 1 4 ( vs. 4 7 % in t h e act ive popu lat ion overall) . M oreover, creat ion is driven b y small b u sinesses or individu als, giving rise t o agile and innovat ive employ ers. M ore t h an h alf ( 5 3 % ) of Canadian gaming developers say t h ey are independent operat ors. In t h e U S , art ist s are 3 . 5 t imes more lik ely t o b e self- employ ed t h an U S w ork ers overall. | 8 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

;udture boosts citiesÌ attractineness W orld- class cu lt u ral infrast ru ct u re is a cat aly st for u rb an development : b u ilding a mu seu m oft en offers opport u nit ies t o engage in large u rb an development proj ect s and t o develop a new “ cit y b rand” arou nd cmltmral and creative indmktriek& Kmc` Öa_k`ih hrobectk Zookt a cityÌk attractivenekk for tomriktk$ talent and h igh ly sk illed w ork ers. B ilb ao, in S pain’ s B asq u e Cou nt ry , is now an icon of cu lt u re- led u rb an regenerat ion: const ru ct ion of t h e G u ggenh eim M u seu m led t o t h e creat ion of more t h an 1 , 0 0 0 fu ll- t ime j ob s, and t ou rist visit s h ave since mu lt iplied eigh t - fold. E q u ally import ant , CCI mak e cit ies more livab le, providing t h e h u b s and many of t h e act ivit ies arou nd w h ich cit iz ens develop friendsh ips, b u ild a local ident it y and find fmlfilleent& L`e in^oread econoeq is a nast resernoir o^ bobs Informal CCI sales in emerging cou nt ries w ere est imat ed t o t ot al U S $ 3 3 b in 2 0 1 3 and t o provide )&* eillion boZk& Herforein_ artk are t`e Zi__ekt eehloyerk in t`e inforeal econoey$ hrovidin_ mnofficial mu sic and t h eat er performances ( st reet performances, fest ivals and concert s t h at do not pay au t h ors’ righ t s, privat e performances at marriages and fu nerals, et c. ) , w h ich are oft en free for au diences. In Africa, t h ese performances are somet imes fu nded b y individu al sponsors. Denera_in_ a eore creatine oord\ • Promoting author’s rights: If w e w ant au t h ors and creat ors t o cont inu e creat ing cu lt u re and promot ing cu lt u ral diversit y , t h ey mu st b e compensat ed fairly for t h e u se of t h eir w ork s. T h e cu rrent failu re t o properly rew ard creat ors is limit ing CCI revenu es, and h olding b ack t h eir grow t h and ab ilit y t o generat e j ob creat ion. • Looking for growth: As companies ch ase t h e scale needed t o ex ploit t h eir b est cont ent ideas across glob al mark et s, consolidat ion is b ack in vogu e. E Y ’ s 2 0 1 5 M edia & E nt ert ainment Capital Confidence Barometer sh ow s t h at 5 0 % of CCI companies ex pect t o pu rsu e acq u isit ions in t h e nex t 1 2 mont h s. • Pursuing global expansion: M at u re mark et s remain t h e most at t ract ive for invest ment b y CCI companies and organiz at ions. N onet h eless, Ch ina and India are t h e emerging mark et s of ch oice for many ex ecu t ives, draw n primarily b y t h eir st rong grow t h and massive long- t erm pot ent ial. • Balancing online monetization: ;;A hlayerk face too difficmltiek2 tryin_ to herkmade conkmeerk to pay for somet h ing t h ey may h ave b een accessing for free, and ex t ract ing a fair sh are of t h e valu e generat ed b y cu lt u ral cont ent , w h ich h as b een largely capt u red b y online int ermediaries. T h e prob lem of a valu e ch ain dist ort ed in favor of int ernet int ermediaries needs t o b e addressed b y policy mak ers across b orders, so t h at t h e int ernet b ecomes a fair- t rade place for creat ors and t h eir w ork s. • Nurturing talent: T alent is t h e lifeb lood of cu lt u ral and creat ive indu st ries. According t o u rb an economist R ich ard F lorida, t h e “ creat ive class, ” inclu ding designers, art ist s and h igh - sk illed int ellect u al w ork ers, act s as an engine of innovat ion and u rb an development , st ru ct u ring creat ive h u b s and net w ork s for t h e economic, social and cu lt u ral development of t h eir nat ive cit ies and regions. | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 9

oduction tr In | 10 Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries

L`e _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 9n unhrece\ente\ initiatine T h e w orld h as a sh ared h ist ory and • T o u nderst and t h e overall economic ex perience in cu lt u ral, creat ive, media a rich , diverse cu lt u ral h erit age. T h is role of CCI glob ally , b y sect or and and ent ert ainment indu st ries w orldw ide. h erit age is ch erish ed glob ally as an b y region T h e E Y proj ect t eam w as su pport ed b y asset t h at b elongs t o u s all, y et gives ou r • T o pu t t h ese analy ses int o perspect ive t`e fireÌk _loZal netoorc of hrofekkionalk$ societ ies t h eir ident it y and b inds t h em against t h e past , cu rrent and fu t u re providing access, insigh t s and ex pert ise t oget h er, nu rt u ring a rich cu lt u ral and economic sit u at ion on t h is w ide- ranging st u dy . creat ive present and fu t u re. T h at is w h y All est imat es and q u alit at ive t rends st ak eh olders of t h e creat ive and cu lt u ral • T o sh ow h ow , and t o w h at ex t ent , det ailed in t h is report arise from long- w orld mu st do every t h ing in t h eir pow er CCI may b e a driving force for glob al st anding collab orat ion: t o preserve t h is h erit age and t h e diversit y economic grow t h of act u al cu lt u ral cont ent , amid a polit ical • T o produ ce a compreh ensive report • T h e st u dy involved 1 5 0 int erview s and economic climat e t h at is su b j ect t o w it h ex amples of t h e diversit y and t o ident ify megat rends and regional maj or u ph eavals. complex it y of CCI w orldw ide pecu liarit ies. T h e idea b eh ind t h is report is t h at t h e T h is st u dy encompasses a w ide range • M ore t h an 3 0 0 sou rces w ere review ed economic w eigh t of cu lt u ral and creat ive of creat ive act ivit ies comb ining t h e t o develop t h e economic assessment . indu st ries ( CCI) in mat u re and emerging creat ion, produ ct ion and dist rib u t ion of • T h e valu at ion met h odology and economies is part ially describ ed, cu lt u ral cont ent . U nlik e ot h er st u dies, est imat es w ere review ed in dept h misu nderst ood and u ndervalu ed. T h is w e h ave inclu ded all act ivit ies relat ed t o b y senior economist s from O x ford is w h y t h e Int ernat ional Confederat ion t h e performing art s ( inclu ding dance, E conomics. of S ociet ies of Au t h ors and Composers opera, b allet and live mu sic) and visu al ( CIS AC — t h e b ody represent ing art s ( mu seu ms, visu al art s creat ion, art • T h e st u dy w as overseen and au t h ors’ societ ies w orldw ide) — decided mark et and design act ivit ies) . In addit ion, coordinat ed b y a w ork ing grou p t o commission a glob al st u dy of t h e =QÌk ktmdy ik t`e firkt to keharately of met h odology and CCI ex pert s economic and social impact of CCI, assess t h e economic valu e of each CCI ( inclu ding CIS AC, au t h ors’ focu sing especially u pon revenu es and individu ally , and at a glob al level. societ ies, t h e W orld Int ellect u al employ ment . T h e st u dy h as t h e follow ing P ropert y O rganiz at ion ( W IP O ) and ob j ect ives: T he result of in- dep th T h e W orld B ank ) . • T o produ ce a comparat ive, collaboration q u ant it at ive and q u alit at ive analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive indu st ries T h e st u dy w as condu ct ed b y E Y , w h ich h as recogniz ed involvement and ;;A anadqre\ in )) sectors an\ - _dobad re_ions MF=K;G definek cmltmral and creative reprodu ct ion, promot ion, dist rib u t ion or and act ivit ies of a cu lt u ral, art ist ic or indu st ries as act ivit ies “ w h ose commercializ at ion of goods, services h erit age- relat ed nat u re. ” principal pu rpose is produ ct ion or CCI: a wide range of cultural and creative activities in 1 1 sectors A dvertising Advert ising agencies M usic S ou nd recording and mu sic R adio R adio b roadcast ing act ivit ies pu b lish ing indu st ry , live mu sic A rchitecture 9rc`itectmral firek M ovie M ot ion pict u re produ ct ion, T V T V programming, produ ct ion post - produ ct ion and and b roadcast ing inclu ding dist rib u t ion cab le and sat ellit e B ooks P h y sical and digit al b ook s sales N ewsp ap ers N ew spapers and magaz ine V isual arts V isu al art s creat ion, mu seu ms, inclmdin_ kcientific$ tec`nical and pu b lish ing indu st ry ( B 2 C and ph ot ograph ic and design and medical b ook s) magazines B 2 B , new s agencies) act ivit ies Gaming V ideo game pu b lish ers, P erforming P erforming art s act ivit ies: developers and ret ailers; A rts dance, t h eat re, live mu sic, eq u ipment sales opera, b allet , et c. | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries ))

;gehgsiligf g^ l`e fine _lgbal je_igfs N orth A merica E urop e U S and Canada E u ropean U nion, non- E U E u ropean cou nt ries ( N orw ay , S w it z erland, Iceland, B alk ans, et c. ) , T u rk ey and R u ssia. Cent ral Asian cou nt ries ( K az ak h st an, U z b ek ist an, et c. ) and Israel are not inclu ded L atin A merica and Asia-Pacific Caribbean Inclu ding Cent ral Asia M ex ico, S ou t h America, and Cau casian cou nt ries Cent ral America and ( Az erb aij an, Armenia Carib b ean cou nt ries and G eorgia) A frica and the M iddle E ast Africa, G u lf cou nt ries and M iddle E ast ( inclu ding Israel) O u r assessment met h od ( b ased on t h e most rob u st dat a availab le) provides regional est imat es, for CCI sales and revenu es, calcu lat ed from regional dat a and b ased on st rong economic and sociologic assu mpt ions. H ence, t h is met h odology ( see sect ion 5 ) does not enab le u s t o provide CCI sales and revenu es at a cou nt ry - level. Eeasurin_ econoeic nadue bq renenues an\ eehdoqeent L`e ktmdy imantifiek t`e econoeic valme goods and services sold t h rou gh Mn\er_roun\ econoeq of CCI ( in U S $ ) , providing an assessment mnofficial diktriZmtion c`annelk Zy L`e mnder_romnd econoey ik defined ak of ;;A revenmek defined ak :mkinekk% produ cers and ret ailers, are inclu ded “ mark et - b ased produ ct ion of goods and t o- Consu mer — B 2 C, and B u siness- t o- in ou r est imat es. W e h ave also services, w h et h er legal or illegal, t h at B u siness — B 2 B , sales) and t h e nu mb er of inclu ded pu b lic license fees for t h e ekcahe detection in t`e official ektieatek people employ ed in CCI. au diovisu al sect or ( T V and radio) . of G D P ” ( S mit h , 1 9 9 4 ) . Applied t o CCI, Jenenues an\ eehdoqeent • Cultural and creative employment: t h e u ndergrou nd economy involves t h e T h is w as est imat ed in t h e nu mb er of ex ch ange of cu lt u ral and creat ive goods W e measu red t h e economic valu e of CCI j ob s. W e u sed t h e ILO ( Int ernat ional and kervicek t`at are `idden froe official w it h t w o met rics: DaZor Gr_aniration! definition of view . It inclu des: employ ment : “ all persons … w h o du ring • Piracy: ph y sical piracy , i. e. , t h e act ivit y • Cultural and creative industries a khecified Zrief heriod$ eit`er one revenues ( in 2 0 1 3 cu rrent U S D ) : T h e w eek or one day , w ere in t h e follow ing of manu fact u ring u nau t h oriz ed copies st u dy adopt ed an approach b ased cat egories: paid employ ment and self- ( pirat e copies) of prot ect ed mat erial on final conkmeer and Zmkinekk employ ment . ” B y doing so, w e are ab le and dealing w it h su ch copies b y w ay mark et s ( B 2 C and B 2 B ) , primarily at t o inclu de every person w ork ing in a of dist rib u t ion and sale; and digit al ret ail prices ( w it h ou t indirect t ax es) . CCI ( inclu ding non- permanent j ob s, piracy , i. e. , u nau t h oriz ed int ernet Anforeal kalek$ defined ak cmltmral creat ors, au t h ors and performers) . dist rib u t ion of prot ect ed w ork s | )* Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

• The informal economy: su pply of report aims t o h igh ligh t t h e impact of st u dies, indu st ry report s and int erview s goods and services in ex ch ange for CCI on ot h er b ranch es of t h e economy , w it h approx imat ely 1 5 0 st ak eh olders pay ment , b u t w h ich is not covered w e assessed t h e revenu es generat ed and ex pert s. O u r approach and or ik inkmfficiently covered Zy foreal b y cu lt u ral cont ent for digit al play ers, assu mpt ions h ave b een validat ed b y arrangement s defined ak coehaniek hrovidin_2 O x ford E conomics ex pert s. In ou r est imat es of CCI revenu es • P h y sical goods sold on t h e int ernet In most cases — and part icu larly for and j ob s, w e inclu ded t h e informal ( b ook s, mu sic, games and video) glob al est imat es of mark et s and econoey$ ak defined aZove$ and t`e • D igit al cu lt u ral cont ent ( eb ook s, mu sic, employ ment — 2 0 1 3 st at ist ics w ere sale of u nau t h oriz ed cu lt u ral goods and video, games) t h e most recent availab le. services ( u nau t h oriz ed b ook copies, pirat ed recorded mu sic, et c. ) . B ecau se • O nline media advert ising ( for online

w and ends ervie Ov megatr The economic value of cultural and creative industries worldwide | 14 Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries

An *()+$ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries oord\oi\e _enerate\ renenues o^ MK*$*-(b an\ eehdoqe\ *1 eiddion heohde T h e 1 1 CCI sect ors are an int egral, massive and u niversal cornerst one of t h e glob al economy . In 2 0 1 3 , t h ey generat ed U S $ 2 , 2 5 0 b of revenu es ( 3 % of w orld G D P ) and 2 9 . 5 million j ob s. U S $ 2 , 2 5 0 b 2 9 . 5 million ?dobad ;;A earkets ?dobad ;;A eehdoqeent W it h in t h e 1 1 sect ors, t w o pat t erns st and ou t : • Mass, versus nimbleness: V isu al art s ( 3 8 % of CCI sales) relat ive t o employ ee and t elevision are t h e h eavy w eigh t s, nu mb ers ( only 2 2 % of CCI j ob s) . O n accou nt ing for more t h an a t h ird of t h e ot h er h and, w it h 4 6 % of j ob s b u t t h e economic valu e generat ed b y only 1 7 % of revenu es, mu sic, movies, CCI ( 3 9 % of sales and 3 5 % of j ob s) . t h e performing art s and b ook s are W it h j u st 6 % of CCI w ork ers and 4 % of t h e b iggest j ob generat ors. Y et , CCI sales, radio and gaming are t h e lab or- int ensive CCI inclu de a h igh smallest CCI sect ors, b u t are evolving proport ion of non- permanent w ork ers in dy namic mark et s. and creat ors. In t h e mu sic indu st ry , • Revenue versus labor intensity: 6 0 % of w ork ers are au t h ors and Advert ising, new spapers and composers, w h ich ex plains t h e h igh magaz ines, and arch it ect u re nu mb er of j ob s compared w it h t h e are CCI w it h great er revenu es revenme fi_mre& T elevision top s the charts: CCI sectors by revenue ( U S $ b) and j obs CCI sectors R evenues E mp loyment ( 2 0 1 3 , U S $ b) ( 2 0 1 3 , number of j obs) Ledenision 4 7 7 3 , 5 2 7 , 0 0 0 Nisuad arts 3 9 1 6 , 7 3 2 0 0 0 Neoshahers an\ ea_arines 3 5 4 2 , 8 6 5 , 0 0 0 9\nertisin_ 2 8 5 1 , 9 5 3 , 0 0 0 9rc`itecture 2 2 2 1 , 6 6 8 , 0 0 0 :ooks 1 4 3 3 , 6 7 0 , 0 0 0 Her^orein_ arts 1 2 7 3 , 5 3 8 , 0 0 0 ?aein_ 9 9 6 0 5 , 0 0 0 Eonies 7 7 2 , 4 8 4 , 0 0 0 Eusic 6 5 3 , 9 7 9 , 0 0 0 Ja\io 4 6 5 0 2 , 0 0 0 Lotad be^ore reeonin_ \oubde countin_! 2 , 2 8 5 * 3 1 , 5 2 4 , 0 0 0 * T otal ( minus double- counting) 2 , 2 5 3 2 9 , 5 0 7 , 0 0 0 S ou rce: Cultural times: the first global map of cultural and creative industries, E Y , 2 0 1 5 " Jomnded fi_mre | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries )-

;;A bq re_ion2 a coehdex an\ especially du e t o it s cont emporary and many Lat in American w rit ers codor^ud cannas art , and F rench company P u b licis is h ave ach ieved glob al acclaim. T h e a k ey play er in t h e glob al advert ising regional CCI mark et is also gaining • Asia-Pacific ( AP AC) is t h e w orld’ s indu st ry . S even of t h e 1 0 most visit ed t ract ion. M u lt i- media conglomerat es, b iggest CCI mark et , generat ing mu seu ms in t h e w orld are E u ropean su ch as G ru po G lob o in B raz il, G ru po U S $ 7 4 3 b of revenu es ( 3 3 % of glob al ( t h ree in P aris, t w o in London) and T elevisa in M ex ico and G ru po Clarin in CCI sales) and 1 2 . 7 million j ob s 3 0 of t h e 6 9 U N E S CO “ Creat ive Argent ina, ow n a spread of T V , radio ( 4 3 % of CCI j ob s w orldw ide) . T h e Cit ies” are E u ropean. T h e E u ropean and press int erest s, capt u ring large mark et h as t h e largest consu mer cu lt u ral economy also relies on a au diences and produ cing dist inct ive b ase. It is h ome t o some CCI leaders — w ell- st ru ct u red ecosy st em w it h t h e T V programs. T encent , a k ey play er in games and presence of b ig CCI play ers ( W P P • Africa and the Middle East ach ieves inst ant messaging, h ad consolidat ed G rou p, P earson, Ax el S pringer, U S $ 5 8 b in revenu es ( 3 % of t h e revenu es of U S $ 2 0 b in 2 0 1 3 , U niversal, U b isoft and ot h ers) . t ot al) and 2 . 4 million j ob s ( 8 % of w h ile J apan’s Qoeiuri K`iebun, • North America is t h e t h ird- largest CCI t ot al CCI j ob s) . African mu sic h as t h e w orld b est selling new spaper, mark et w it h revenu es of U S $ 6 2 0 b ( 2 8 % b een cent ral t o t h e development of print s 1 0 million copies a day . T h e of glob al revenu es) and 4 . 7 million j ob s popu lar mu sic in N ort h and S ou t h Indian b ook indu st ry b ecame t h e ( 1 6 % of t ot al j ob s) . T h e N ort h American America and even E u rope. T oday , 1 0 t h largest b ook mark et in 2 0 1 4 , mark et is pow ered b y leading cu lt u ral African societ ies cont ain cu lt u ral and w ill see t h e fast est grow t h and ent ert ainment play ers: t h e region rich es t h at are b u b b ling u p t o emb race glob ally in t ot al b ook s revenu e. AP AC is t h e largest mark et for T V ( U S $ 1 8 2 b ) , t h e opport u nit ies offered b y new consu mers are part icu larly k een movies ( U S $ 2 8 b ) and radio ( U S $ 2 1 b ) . t ech nologies and commercial mark et s. on new spapers and video games N ort h America is also at t h e forefront F ilm produ ct ion and view ing are now ( 1 4 . 2 and 0 . 7 percent age point s of t h e digit al t ransformat ion, w it h driving employ ment grow t h in t h e ab ove t h e glob al average) . t h e largest nu mb er of consu mers of CCI, w it h st rik ing su ccesses su ch as • Europe is t h e second- largest CCI digit al cu lt u ral cont ent [ 4 7 % of digit al t h e rise of N olly w ood, t h e N igerian mark et , accou nt ing for U S $ 7 0 9 b of dist rib u t ion and revenu es, ah ead of file indmktry$ o`ic` ik noo recconed revenu es ( 3 2 % of t h e glob al t ot al) Asia ( 2 5 % ) and E u rope ( 2 4 % ) ] . t o direct ly employ 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 people. and 7 . 7 million j ob s ( 2 6 % of all CCI • T h e Latin American CCI economy Y et , t h e African mark et is poorly j ob s) . E u rope’ s cu lt u ral economy is generat es U S $ 1 2 4 b in revenu es st ru ct u red and cu lt u ral goods are root ed in it s h ist ory : t h e region enj oy s ( 6 % of CCI glob al mark et ) and largely provided t h ou gh t h e informal a u niq u e concent rat ion of h erit age 1 . 9 million j ob s ( 7 % of t ot al CCI j ob s) . economy , w h ich is b elieved t o employ and art s inst it u t ions. H ow ever, Lat in America and t h e Carib b ean 5 4 7 , 5 0 0 people and generat e E u rope also remains a t rendset t er region possesses a rich cu lt u ral and U S $ 4 . 2 b in revenu es. on t h e glob al st age. F or inst ance, nat u ral h erit age, w it h 1 3 1 sit es t h e U K is a leader in t h e art mark et , inscrib ed on t h e W orld H erit age List , | ). Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

B ig in the north: CCI strongp oints* * N orth A merica E urop e A P A C U S $ 6 2 0 b 4 . 7 m U S $ 7 0 9 b 7 . 7 m U S $ 7 4 3 b 1 2 . 7 m revenue jobs revenue jobs revenue jobs 3 . 3 % of regional G D P 3 % of regional G D P 3 % of regional G D P 2 1 3 5 L atin A merica and the Caribbean 4 A frica and the M iddle E ast U S $ 1 2 4 b 1 . 9 m U S $ 5 8 b 2 . 4 m revenue jobs revenue jobs 2 . 2 % of regional G D P 1 .1 % of regional G D P S ou rce: Cultural times: the first global map of cultural and creative industries, E Y , 2 0 1 5 "" Jomnded fi_mrek | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries )/

Qoun_$ _i^te\ an\ entrehreneuriad t ech nologies and mass t ravel h ave on t`e toh *-( doeektic! _rokkin_ filek low ered ent ry b arriers, mak ing it in t h e U S . T h is is t h e same percent age of Cu lt u ral and creat ive w ork ers st and ou t far easier for an individu al t o st art a w omen w ork ing in t h ese roles in 1 9 9 8 . 1 from t h e crow d, display ing fou r part icu lar creat ive or cu lt u ral b u siness, and gain Import ant issu es inclu de w omen’ s access q u alit ies: a glob al au dience and repu t at ion. t o part icipat ion in t h e cu lt u ral and • Youth: Creat ive act ivit ies cont rib u t e • High level of education: CCI w ork ers economic life of t h eir societ y , access ki_nificantly to yomt` eehloyeent& are t y pically more edu cat ed t h an t h e t o credit and invest ment capit al for In E u rope, CCI sect ors t y pically average. In B raz il, CCI w ork ers h ad t h eir proj ect s, and access t o propert y employ ed more people aged 1 5 – 2 9 1 7 % more y ears of edu cat ion t h an t h e righ t s. T h ese issu es ex ist w it h in a more y ears t h an any ot h er sect or ( 1 9 . 1 % nat ional w ork force average in 2 0 1 0 . _eneralired ket of difficmltiek t`at of t ot al employ ment in CCI vs. 1 8 . 6 % creat ors face w h en at t empt ing t o secu re in t h e rest of t h e economy ) in 2 0 1 3 . Looar\ better access ^or ooeen eq u it ab le remu nerat ion for t h eir w ork : In Cent ral and E ast ern E u rope, on to cudturad eehdoqeent respect for t h eir moral righ t s, cont ract average, y ou ng people accou nt for negot iat ion u nder condit ions of ex t reme 1 . 3 percent age point more j ob s in t h e W it h U S $ 2 , 2 5 0 b revenu es in 2 0 1 3 hooer akyeeetriek$ kecmrin_ financial creat ive economy t h an in t h e economy and 2 9 . 5 m j ob s, t h e creat ive economy b ack ing for creat ive proj ect s, and t h e as a w h ole. appears t o b e a pow erfu l development general precariou sness of lab or cont ract s • High productivity: CCI j ob s in some tool in _eneral& Eore khecifically$ it _ivek in many sect ors of t h e CCI. F or t h e sect ors cont rib u t e more t o G D P an idea of t h e sect or’ s pot ent ial t o offer vast maj orit y of w omen creat ors, t h ese t h an t h e economy - w ide average. economic opport u nit ies t o w omen. difficmltiek are aehlified ak t`ey interkect An ;`ina$ t`e file and televikion In many cou nt ries, creat ive indu st ries w it h t h e realit ies t h at w omen face w h en sect or generat ed 7 8 % more added t end t o favor t h e part icipat ion of at t empt ing t o gain access t o economic valu e per w ork er t h an t h e rest of w omen compared w it h more t radit ional part icipat ion. t h e economy in 2 0 1 1 , according t o indu st ries. S t at ist ics compiled b y t h e In many developing cou nt ries and O x ford E conomics. In S ou t h K orea, U K G overnment sh ow ed t h at w omen t ransit ion economies, w omen creat ors t`e hrodmctivity of file and televikion accou nt ed for more t h an 5 0 % of people are more lik ely t o b e fou nd in craft s w ork ers is t w ice t h e nat ional average. employ ed in t h e mu sic indu st ry in and t h e visu al art s. H ow ever, for a large • Independence and entrepreneurship: 2 0 1 4 ( vs. 4 7 % only in t h e w h ole act ive percent age of cou nt ries — part icu larly CCI h ave alw ay s b een fragment ed, and popu lat ion) . t h ose w it h w eak er int ellect u al propert y creat ion driven b y small b u sinesses H ow ever, t h is is not t h e norm for all framew ork s — t h is sect or is t h e least or individu als. M ore t h an h alf ( 5 3 % ) creat ive sect ors or j ob cat egories w it h in lik ely t o h ave a fu nct ioning sy st em of of Canadian gaming developers say t h ose sect ors. F or ex ample, in 2 0 1 4 , regist ered copy righ t s or designs, or t h ey are independent operat ors. In w omen comprised 1 7 % of all direct ors, st rong inst it u t ional su pport . T h e resu lt is t h e U S , art ist s are 3 . 5 t imes more w rit ers, produ cers, ex ecu t ive produ cers, oft en an u nreliab le sou rce of income and lik ely t o b e self- employ ed t h an U S edit ors and cinemat ograph ers w ork ing no ab ilit y t o claim at t rib u t ion w h en w ork s w ork ers overall. T h e int ernet , digit al are appropriat ed b y t h ird part ies. 1 The Celluloid Ceiling: Behind-the-Scenes Employment of Women on the Top 250 Films of 2014 | )0 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

;udturad an\ creatine in\ustries ^ued t`e o`ode econoeq ;oeharin_ ;;A oit` ot`er B ig by any measure in\ustries s`oos t`e oi\t` an\ \eht` o^ t`e creatine econoeq R evenues ( U S $ b) in 2 0 1 3 E mp loyment ( 2 0 1 3 ) CCI sales w orldw ide ex ceed t h ose of CCI 2 , 2 5 0 2 9 . 5 million t elecom services ( U S $ 1 , 5 7 0 b glob ally ) Industries Ledecoe sernices 9utoeotine in\ustrq in =urohe$ and su rpass India’ s G D P ( U S $ 1 , 9 0 0 b ) . 1 , 5 7 0 t`e MK an\ Bahan coebine\ W it h 2 9 . 5 million j ob s, CCI employ 1 % 2 5 million of t h e w orld’ s act ive popu lat ion. CCI h ave more w ork ers t h an S ou t h K orea Countries An\iaÌs ?

;;A contribute\ MK*((b to t`e T he wellsp rings of digital revenue, U S $ b, 2 0 1 3 \i_itad econoeq in *()+ 1 9 8 . 6 T ot al D igit al cu lt u ral goods are, b y far, t h e b iggest revenu e sou rce for t h e digit al economy , generat ing U S $ 6 6 b of B 2 C sales ( eb ook s, mu sic, video, games) in 2 0 1 3 and U S $ 2 2 b of advert ising revenu es for online media and free 8 5 . 1 st reaming w eb sit es su ch as Y ou T u b e. Cu lt u ral goods and event t ick et s are increasingly sold on int ernet plat forms via e%retailerk and online clakkifiedk$ 2 1 . 7 generat ing U S $ 2 6 b in sales and driving t h e grow t h of t h e online economy . D igit al advert ising creat ion O nline advert isement s provided U S $ 8 5 b Advert ising revenu es for online media in revenu es for advert ising agencies in 6 5 . 6 and free st reaming w eb sit es 2 0 1 3 . T h e online migrat ion is driving D igit al cu lt u ral cont ent B 2 C sales agencies t o develop new sk ills in video, P h y sical cu lt u ral goods sold on cont ent produ ct ion and st ory t elling. t h e int ernet 2 6 . 3 9ut`orsÌ ri_`ts an\ \i_itad \enices2 hrinate cohqin_ denies S ou rce: E Y analy sis, M AG N A G LO B AL ( 2 0 1 5 ) , T h omson R eu t ers ( 2 0 1 5 , Y ou T u b e ( 2 0 1 5 ) , D aily mot ion ( 2 0 1 5 ) , are a tren\in_ tohic S pot ify ( 2 0 1 5 ) P rivat e copy ex cept ions t o au t h ors’ of t h eir w ork s, in ex ch ange for a fair devices ( su ch as CD s and D V D s) and righ t s/ copy righ t s and neigh b oring compensat ion ( a fee t ak en on each st orage capacit ies on ph ones, t ab let s ri_`tk conktitmtek t`e only efficient and copy ing device) , t h u s allow ing t h e pu b lic and compu t ers and are massively u sed operat ional w ay t o t ransfer part of t h e t o legally copy t h eir w ork s for t h eir ow n t o copy cu lt u ral w ork s. valu e creat ed b y cu lt u ral w ork s from mke& At Zenefitk Zot` t`e hmZlic and t`e T h e ch allenge is t h at in many cou nt ries digit al play ers t ow ard t h e creat ors of manu fact u rers of copy ing devices ( as t h e t h is sy st em does not ex ist . In ot h er t h ese w ork s. devices w ou ld h ave mu ch less int erest cou nt ries act s of privat e copy are P rivat e copy is a legal concept invent ed w it h ou t creat ive w ork s t o copy ) w h ile permit t ed b u t no compensat ion is in G ermany in 1 9 6 5 , at t h e t ime w h en not neglect ing t h e need t o compensat e grant ed t o creat ors ( t h e U K ) . T h is magnet ic copy ing mach ines ( for mu sic) creat ors for t h e u se of t h eir righ t s. means b illions of dollars or eu ros lost w ere invent ed and people w ou ld b u y T h e privat e copy ing levies sy st em for creat ors w h ose w ork s are copied for t h em t o copy mu sic from t h e radio for proved adapt ab le and w as, t h erefore, people’s u se and ent ert ainment w it h ou t t h eir personal u se. adopt ed in many cou nt ries; 5 2 cou nt ries any compensat ion. T h e G ermans creat ed an ex cept ion t o w orldw ide h ave a privat e copy ex cept ion au t h ors’ righ t s b y w h ich creat ors w aive now aday s, inclu ding B u rk ina F aso and t h eir righ t t o au t h oriz e/ forb id t h e u se 9l_eria& At hrovek harticmlarly efficient in t h e digit al age, w h ere b lank copy ing | *( Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Hrotectin_ aut`orsÌ ri_`ts an\ s`arin_ nadue2 o`at is coddectine eana_eeent7 Au t h ors’ righ t s/ copy righ t can b e L`e firkt ;EG to Ze created oak ex ercised eit h er via individu al S ACD in F rance in 1 7 7 7 . T h ere direct licensing ( e. g. , a mu sic are now more t h an 2 0 0 su ch produ cer negot iat ing t h e price CM O s represent ing all t y pes of of t h eir cat alogu e w it h an repert oires and fou r million creat ors online mu sic service) or t h rou gh oorldoide forein_ an efficient collect ive management . net w ork t h rou gh CIS AC. T h eir Collect ive management came primary goal is t o manage economic t o b eing as an economic answ er righ t s and collect and dist rib u t e t o t h e ch allenges present ed remu nerat ion t o creat ors for t h e b y many - t o- many mark et s: it u se of t h eir w ork . CM O s also w ork is impossib le for each au t h or/ t o creat e a su st ainab le environment composer t o deal direct ly w it h each for t h e development of copy righ t u ser of t h eir w ork , t o give t h em and au t h ors’ righ t s t o fost er and au t h oriz at ion t o u se t h eir w ork s encou rage t h e development of and get remu nerat ion. F or inst ance, cu lt u ral diversit y , and t o promot e S ACE M , t h e F rench mu sic collect ive t h e disseminat ion of creat ive societ y , h as 1 5 3 , 0 0 0 memb ers repert oires w orldw ide. and 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 u sers. It cou ld b e CM O s are part icu larly w ell- adapt ed pract ically impossib le for each of t o t h e negot iat ing of righ t s in t h e t h ese memb ers t o negociat e or digit al era as t h ey provide a one- ent er int o a licence agreement w it h st op- sh op t o get licenses for t h e every pot ent ial licensee. Collect ive D igit al S ou nd P rogrammes ( D S P s) management organiz at ions ( CM O s) for a large nu mb er of w ork s, t h u s are generally ru led b y creat ors fost ering legal secu rit y as w ell as t h emselves, t o b e b ot h t h e int erface simplicit y . F or creat ors and art ist s, b et w een t h em and t h e people u sing t h ey provide plat forms t o manage t h eir w ork s. CM O s are w ork ing nano/ micro pay ment s and pay ment s as cooperat ives, w h ere t h ey can for t h e u se of t h eir w ork s w orldw ide, assemb le t h eir w ork s t o get b et t er and ensu re t h at all repert oires are b argaining pow er w it h u sers ( media t reat ed eq u ally — essent ial t o ensu re ou t let s su ch as T V , radio, int ernet , t h at cu lt u ral diversit y h as t h e means digit al companies, t h eat ers, concert t o b lossom. h alls, et c. ) | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries *)

;reatine in\ustries an\ cudturad tourise `ane becoee strate_ic assets ^or docad econoeies T h e nu mb er and scale of cit ies cont inu e h erit age, act ivit ies and event s are 2 4 y ears old in 2 0 1 4 , a record h igh — and t o grow across t h e glob e — driven b y u rb an grow t h accelerat ors, and play a _loZal literacy `ak iehroved ki_nificantly& rapid u rb aniz at ion in emerging mark et s maj or role in u rb an renew al. In J apan, S t rong economic grow t h and y ou ng and cont inu ed u rb aniz at ion in mat u re t`e GdaiZa artificial ikland Zrin_k popu lat ions are already comb ining mark et s. According t o t h e U nit ed N at ions t oget h er b u siness, leisu re and cu lt u ral t o produ ce a su rge of middle class ( U N ) , 5 4 % of t h e w orld’ s popu lat ion infrast ru ct u re. T h e island’ s t w o mu seu ms consu mers in many emerging mark et s. now lives in cit ies, and b y 2 0 5 0 , t h is and it s cu lt u ral event s ( t h e Comic M ark et N ow h ere is t h is t rend st ronger t h an in proport ion w ill increase t o 6 6 % . In 2 0 1 0 , and G u ndam fest ival at t ract int ernat ional Asia and Africa: t h e rapid emergence 3 6 % of Africans lived in cit ies; b y 2 0 3 0 , gaming, manga and anime ent h u siast s) of Asia’ s middle class is adding a leisu re h alf t h e cont inent ’ s popu lat ion w ill b e u nderpin t h e su ccess and at t ract ions of cent er t o t h e w orld’ s manu fact u ring h u b . u rb an, and b y 2 0 5 0 , 6 ou t of 1 0 Africans t h is T ok y o dist rict . T h e Comic M ark et Already , Asia cou nt s 5 2 5 million middle- are ex pect ed t o b e cit y dw ellers. draw s t w ice a y ear almost 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 class cu lt u ral consu mers. people in a t h ree- day event . In accordance w it h t h eories advanced b y L`e dure o^ cudture T h e S ou t h b y S ou t h w est ( S x S W ) fest ival American economist T h orst ein V eb len, 2 A rich cu lt u ral life h as b ecome a h as pu t Au st in, T ex as, on t h e glob al consu mers are spending money on maj or asset for cou nt ries seek ing cu lt u ral map, at t ract ing more t h an ” lu x u ry ” cu lt u ral goods t o pu b licly display t o at t ract corporat e ex ecu t ives and 3 7 0 , 0 0 0 people in 2 0 1 4 , and generat ing t h eir new fou nd economic pow er. Cu lt u ral t alent ed employ ees — w h o are t y pically U S $ 3 1 5 m for t h e local economy . k now ledge and consu mpt ion h ave k een consu mers of cu lt u re and b ecome a means of enh ancing social ent ert ainment — as w ell as cu lt u re- L`e risin_ ei\\de cdass is `un_rq st at u s. T h is t rend is clearly apparent driven t ou rist s. D eveloping cu lt u ral ^or cudture in India, w h ere rising new spaper sales infrast ru ct u re is especially import ant for reÖect kocial ak oell ak econoeic emerging cou nt ries, w h ich w ill at t ract T h e w orld is y ou ng — 1 . 8 b illion of t h e aspirat ions. more t h an h alf of int ernat ional t ou rist s w orld’ s popu lat ion w as b et w een 1 0 and b y 2 0 3 0 . S ome cit ies are delib erat ely developing cu lt u ral z ones. E x amples inclu de t h e Z orlu Cent er near Ist anb u l, O daib a in T ok y o, W est K ow loon Cu lt u ral D ist rict in H ong K ong, N D S M in Amst erdam and S t rat ford Cit y D evelopment in London. Z orlu Cent er, nine k ilomet ers T w o th irds o f th e from t h e h eart of Ist anb u l, inclu des not only a premiu m sh opping mall global middle class ( 1 0 5 , 0 0 0 sq m) and h ot els, b u t also a large cu lt u ral cent er ( 5 0 , 0 0 0 sq m) will be Asia-Pacific w it h t w o t h eat ers and ex h ib it ion spaces. residents by 2 0 3 0 , T h e inau gu ral season ( 2 0 1 4 – 1 5 ) w as t o inclu de 4 0 0 performances in front of up f ro m j ust under 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 spect at ors. o ne- th ird in 20 0 9 . In F rance, cu lt u re- b ased t ou rism ( fest ivals, live mu sic, operas and galleries, b u t ex clu ding h ist oric sit es) S ou rce: Hitting the sweet spot: the growth of the middle class in emerging markets, E Y , 2 0 1 3 ; S k olk ovo generat ed U S $ 2 . 6 b in 2 0 1 3 . Cu lt u ral Inst it u t e for emerging mark et st u dies 2 0 1 3 2 The theory of the leisure class: an economic st u dy of inst it u t ions, 1 8 9 9 . | ** Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Cit ies provide a concent rat ion of people class. ” T h is class, according t o R ich ard According t o t h e E Y Global Talent in h u ngry for ent ert ainment in many F lorida, u rb an st u dies t h eorist , inclu des Global Cities 2015 st u dy , t h e cit y rank ing forms, and w it h diverse appet it es. “ su per- creat ive” scient ist s, art ist s, for creat ive class at t ract ion is: T h ey provide a mark et for cu lt u re and engineers, designers and novelist s, as • N ew Y ork — enj oy s a u niq u e cu lt u ral alloo cmltmral diverkity to Öomrik` È an w ell as “ creat ive professionals” w h o scene, emb edded in a cosmopolit an effect increasingly display ed in Ch ina. w ork in a w ide range of k now ledge- b ased and forw ard- t h ink ing u rb an R ising u rb aniz at ion and demand for occu pat ions. T h e creat ive class is t h e environment , generally considered ent ert ainment h ave prompt ed large incarnat ion of t h e t ript y ch “ T ech nology , Zeneficial to creative activitiek invest ment s in const ru ct ion and Lalent and Lolerance$Ê defined Zy >lorida$ real est at e in t h e cou nt ry . Ch inese and is a k ey mot or of grow t h , innovat ion • London — ah ead of P aris ow ing t o conglomerat e D alian W anda G rou p, now and at t ract iveness in u rb an areas. T h e it s int ernat ional openness ( 3 3 % of t h e w orld’ s largest cinema operat or, is comb inat ion of ch eap inner cit y propert y it s popu lat ion w as b orn ab road, invest ing U S $ 1 b t o set u p it s H an S h ow and st rong endorsement of creat ive compared w it h j u st 1 2 % in P aris) T h eat re in W u h an ( popu lat ion 1 0 . 2 m) . freedom h elped revive B erlin, w h ich now • P aris — rank s t h ird du e t o it s cu lt u ral D alian W anda G rou p is also invest ing in draw s art ist s and cu lt u ral ent repreneu rs h erit age and t ech nology asset s, b u t is t h e nearb y W anda M ovie P ark , a giant from arou nd t h e w orld. penaliz ed b y a w eak er ent repreneu rial indoor t h eme park , u sing E u ropean and environment Ch inese t alent t o h elp develop t h e sh ow s Global talent in global cities ( 2 0 1 4 ) and at t ract ions. T op 1 0 city ranking ;udturad hrobects are \riners o^ U rb aniz at ion is accompanied b y ch anging urban re_eneration employ ment pat t erns and t h e acq u isit ion 1 N ew Y ork of new sk ills: African u rb aniz at ion 2 London W orld- class cu lt u ral infrast ru ct u re is a is part of a sh ift from agricu lt u re t o cat aly st of u rb an development : b u ilding manu fact u ring and services. In Lat in 3 P aris a mu seu m oft en offers opport u nit ies America, government s are aw ak ening 4 S an F rancisco t o engage in large u rb an development t o t h e opport u nit ies offered b y , and proj ect s and t o develop a new “ cit y t h e needs of, t h eir developing creat ive 5 S ingapore b rand” arou nd cu lt u ral and creat ive indu st ries. A vocat ional sch ool for indmktriek& Kmc` Öa_k`ih hrobectk Zookt performing art s w as recent ly est ab lish ed 6 S y dney a cit y ’ s at t ract iveness for t ou rist s, t alent in La P lat a, Argent ina, t o eq u ip 7 Los Angeles and h igh ly sk illed w ork ers. u nemploy ed y ou ngst ers and adu lt s for B ilb ao, in S pain’ s B asq u e Cou nt ry , is now j ob s in t h is grow ing arena. 8 B erlin an icon of cu lt u re- led u rb an regenerat ion, 9 neo creatine cdass eeer_es 9 T ok y o w it h t h e G u ggenh eim M u seu m. In a oit` t`e _root` o^ _dobad cities 1 0 B arcelona region b ligh t ed b y h igh u nemploy ment in t h e 1 9 9 0 s ( arou nd 2 5 % ) , t h e U S $ 7 0 0 m U rb aniz at ion, cou pled w it h t h e revit aliz at ion plan enh anced t h e cit y ’ s development of cu lt u ral act ivit ies, is S ou rce: Global talent in global cities, at t ract iveness, u nderpinned 4 , 4 0 0 also fu eling t h e emergence of a new E Y , 2 0 1 5 ex ist ing j ob s in t h e cit y , and creat ed more economic class in b ot h developed and t h an 1 , 0 0 0 fu ll- t ime j ob s. T ou rist visit s emerging cou nt ries — t h e “ creat ive h ave since mu lt iplied eigh t - fold. | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries *+

L`e trut` about t`e cudturad%\i_itad renodution 9 narietq o^ \i_itadiration deneds games, w it h U S $ 3 3 .8 b in sales, w ere S ales of digit al cu lt u ral goods and th e w orld’ s b est - selling digit al cont ent , services are est imat ed t o h ave reach ed follow ed b y digit al movies ( U S $ 1 3 b ) , U S $ 6 6 b in 2 0 1 3 . O nline and mob ile mu sic ( U S $ 1 0 .3 b ) and b ook s ( U S $ 8 . 5 b ). W orldwide sales of digital cultural content in 2 0 1 3 ( U S $ b) 6 5 .6 T ot al 3 3 .8 1 3 O nline and mob ile games D igit al movies & video 1 0 .3 D igit al mu sic D igit al b ook s 8 .5 S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 T h e sh ift from ph y sical t o digit al sales sales. In movies, video- on- demand now is most advanced in recorded mu sic, cont rib u t es more t h an a q u art er of sales w h ere digit al accou nt s for 4 5 % of (2 6 % ) , w h ile in b ook s, e- b ook s comprise pu rch ases w orldw ide, w h ile online and 7 % of t h e glob al mark et . mob ile gaming accou nt for 3 4 % of Digital vs. p hysical content sales in 2 0 1 3 ( % value in U S $ ) T ot al G aming M ovies M u sic B ook s 0 % 2 0 % 4 0 % 6 0 % 8 0 % 1 0 0 % D igit al sales P h y sical sales S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 | *, Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

N ort h Americans are t h e most Mn\erstan\in_ `oo consueers ent h u siast ic consu mers of digit al \rine nadue an\ content cu lt u ral goods, accou nt ing for nearly h alf of all digit al cont ent sales ( 4 7 % ) Consu mer sh ift s resh ape t h e w orld of in 2 0 1 3 , follow ed b y Asians ( 2 5 % ) and cu lt u ral and creat ive indu st ries. T h ou gh E u ropeans ( 2 3 % ) . T h ese vary ing rat es t h e scale and pace of t h e online sh ift reÖect a difference in di_ital eimiheent vary mark edly in different areas of media and infrast ru ct u re availab ilit y ( not and ent ert ainment , all are feeling t h e every one h as a t ab let or e- reader) , b u t effect s. Cont inu ing t ech nology ch ange also h igh ligh t different consu mpt ion w ill accelerat e t h is move, empow ering pat t erns. B u y ing 2 0 % of t h eir b ook s t h e consu mer. in digit al form, compared w it h 3 . 8 % in E u rope and 3 % in AP AC, N ort h Americans are t h e most digit ally - savvy popu lat ion. Digital cultural goods sales by

M ore t h an any ot h er sect or, CCI h ave • Commu nit y : S ocial net w ork s h ave “ b inge- view ” sh ow s b ack - t o- b ack ) . O nline radically rest ru ct u red in response aided t h e emergence of a commu nit y - mark et ers are u sing gaming t ech niq u es t o t h e omnipresence of t h e int ernet b ased digit al economy , in w h ich called _aeification! to attract and `old and t h e new consu mpt ion pat t erns it friends may b e more t ru st ed t h an au diences — w it ness t h e su ccess of social enab les, resh aping b u siness models and t radit ional b rands and media. video- game- view ing plat forms su ch cont ent creat ion processes. S ix feat u res • Involvement : Cont ent needs t o move as T w it ch — and view ers can enh ance st and ou t : from “ offer” t o “ engagement ” in t h eir ex perience of live event s b y • Ab u ndance: T h e ab u ndance and order t o su st ain relat ionsh ips. S ocial simu lt aneou sly sh aring t h eir react ions immense diversit y of cont ent is net w ork s cont rib u t e t o t h e produ ct ion, via second screens and social plat forms. now t ak en for grant ed b y t oday ’ s diffu sion and mark et ing of cu lt u ral and ile,o< Eoviehlep 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 5 | *. Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

T o st ay compet it ive, companies mu st • Invest in new t alent and sk ills t o É Hrint is \eÕnitinedq innovat e const ant ly . T h ey h ave t o: b et t er leverage consu mer and cont ent `ere to staq& At is a • M at ch t h e int eract ivit y of ot h er online analy t ics, improve t h e cu st omer’ s plat forms b y adding new feat u res or mu lt i- ch annel ex perience and develop hohudar ee\iue an\ improving ex ist ing ones t h e ab ilit y t o const ant ly overh au l w h at heohde are attac`e\ t h ey do • S t op t h ink ing in t erms of plat forms, • D evelop open innovat ion st rat egies to rea\in_ on haher& and focu s inst ead u pon cont ent , t o enab ling direct relat ionsh ips w it h An ^act$ it is t`e Õ^t` deliver it seamlessly across plat forms st art - u p companies, individu als and • D evelop direct relat ionsh ips w it h mniverkitiek to Zenefit froe t`eir ideak qear t`at oe see a cu st omers t o secu re cont rol over k ey net increase in t`e valu e- ch ain act ivit ies Annestin_ in neo ee\ia nueber o^ book Companies face t ou gh ch oices ab ou t stores in t`e MK&Ê w h ere t o invest in a fast - ch anging W hat recently landkcahe& GfÖine eedia ktill hrovide t`e surveyed media and eabority of revenmek and hrofitk$ Zmt t`e entertainment CE O s sh are of digit al is grow ing. S teve B ercu Y et , digit al is oft en loss- mak ing in t h e Former President of American Booksellers have to say sh ort and mediu m t erm. M edia and Association, co-owner of BookPeople ent ert ainment ( M & E ) companies mu st cont inu ally assess t h eir invest ment L`e \i_itad hara\ox st rat egies as mark et dy namics ch ange. Alt h ou gh digit aliz at ion is driving É L`e c`adden_e in nani_atin_ T h ey h ave t o: media and cu lt u re consu mpt ion, some t`e hat` to \i_itad is keehin_ • E valu at e t h e opport u nit ies and CCI are sh ow ing st rong resist ance t o qour badance È keehin_ one limit at ions of different plat forms digit iz at ion, su ch as b ook s: in 2 0 1 5 , ^oot sa^edq on t`e \ock as as t h ey evolve, h inging invest ment print w ill represent 8 0 % of all b ook sales qou hut qour dea\in_ ^oot in decisions u pon h ow t h ey w ill affect t h e w orldw ide, and even h igh er in developing t`e boat&Ê u ser ex perience cou nt ries. • D irect invest ment s t ow ard emerging T h e appet it e for ph y sical event s and ecosy st ems offering t h e great est valu e venu es h as sh arpened. T h e mu sic É Oe nee\ to innest in eore • S t u dy h ow consu mer b eh aviors indu st ry is now once again driven b y live \i_itad tadent&Ê and t ech nological development event s, and revenu es from live sh ow s inÖmence eac` ot`er$ and adoht a now ex ceed recorded mu sic sales in some “ t est and learn” approach ( as digit al regions. In E u rope, t ick et sales for live É Oe oidd consi\er \eads companies do) mu sic performances, at U S $ 1 6 . 5 b , are at t`e ri_`t hrice$ but • U nderst and h ow cu rrent and fu t u re now more t h an t w ice t h ose of recorded exherieentin_ oit` ^oreats digit al revenu e models w ill affect mu sic sales ( U S $ 6 . 3 b ) . an\ hrice an\ o^^ers oidd adso lon_%tere hrofitaZility2 coehaniek D igit al dist rib u t ion is b ecoming a t ool for enabde _root`&Ê oft en st ru ggle t o recast t h eir b u siness promot ing live event s. U sing cu lt u ral dat a models w h ile focu sing on sh ort - t erm ab ou t consu mers ( cu lt u ral b eh avior and ret u rns on invest ment social recommendat ions) t o alert t h em t o live event s and sell t h em t ick et s enab les t h e creat ive indu st ry t o b lend b u siness models t o ach ieve grow t h . | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries */

L`e in^oread econoeq is an econoeq L`e inforeal econoey ik defined ak most recent ly , st ream ripping, rival legal t h e U S G overnment of U S $ 4 2 2 m in “ mark et - b ased produ ct ion of goods su b script ion and dow nloading services. In t ax revenu es. and services, w h et h er legal or illegal, S pain, 8 8 % of cu lt u ral cont ent consu med t`at ekcahe detection in t`e official online du ring 2 0 1 4 w as illegal according L`e in^oread econoeq est imat es of G D P ( S mit h , 1 9 9 4 ) . In CCI, t o t h e S panish O b servat ory on piracy and \oeinates cudturad content t h is involves t h e ex ch ange of cu lt u ral digit al consu mpt ion h ab it s in 2 0 1 4 . \istribution in \enedohin_ and creat ive goods and services t h at are P iracy is ex t remely h armfu l t o t h e countries `idden froe official vieo& At inclmdek2 cu lt u ral and creat ive indu st ries: it w reck s • P iracy : ph y sical piracy , i. e. , dist rib u t ion ch annels and leaves creat ors An 9kia%Hacific$ 9frica and Datin 9eerica$ manu fact u ring u nau t h oriz ed ( pirat e) and creat ive indu st ries u nrew arded or informal t rading of pirat ed cu lt u ral goods copies of prot ect ed mat erial and ill- rew arded. P iracy is b elieved t o h ave and services ( u su ally at low er prices) dist rib u t ing and selling t h em; digit al cokt t`e five lar_ekt =M econoeiek w it h ou t any pay ment t o au t h ors is piracy , i. e. , u nau t h oriz ed int ernet arou nd U S $ 2 5 b and more t h an 1 8 9 , 6 0 0 w idespread. It ranges from rip- off CD s, dist rib u t ion of prot ect ed w ork s j ob s b et w een 2 0 0 8 and 2 0 1 1 as sh ow n movies and video games, t o u nlaw fu l • T h e informal economy : paid provision b y a T era Consu lt ant s/ F oru m d’Avignon b ook copies, t o u nlaw fu l performances of goods and services, largely ou t side report in 2 0 1 4 . In t h e U S , mu sic piracy and b ack - door T V su b script ions. Informal formal arrangement s. As su ch , cau ses U S $ 1 2 . 5 b in economic losses, CCI sales in emerging cou nt ries t ot aled t h e informal economy mu st not b e and an est imat ed 7 1 , 0 0 0 j ob s are lost an est imat ed U S $ 3 3 b in 2 0 1 3 and considered as criminal act ivit ies: it annu ally , redu cing t h e mu sic indu st ry ’ s provided 1 . 2 million j ob s. represent s cu lt u ral act ivit ies and earnings b y U S $ 2 . 7 b and depriving cont ent t raded b y creat ors u sing informal dist rib u t ion ch annels. Informal sales of cultural goods and W here the j obs are: emp loyment in the services in A frica, L atin A merica and informal cultural economy in A frica, Hiracq is a si_niÕcant Asia-Pacific$ *()+ Dalif-Aeejica af\ Asia-Pacific$ *()+ t`reat to ;;A D igit al t ech nology h as made it easy 6 % t o u nlaw fu lly copy and sh are cu lt u ral cont ent . Illegal st reaming plat forms, 3 1 % file%k`arin_$ heer%to%heer netoorck and$ 26 % 3 2% 5 6 % 3 % 1 2% 3 % 1 6 % 7 % 8 % B ook s M u sic T V M ovie B ook s M u sic M ovie G aming P erforming art s G aming P erforming art s S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 mark et s, 2 0 1 5 T h e informal economy provides employ ment for sellers, art ist s and performers. | *0 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

P erforming art s are t h e b iggest T h e lack of legal cu lt u ral dist rib u t ion In t h e ab sence of formal venu es, t h e employ ers in t h e informal economy , ch annels ( su ch as b ook st ores) and ot h er inforeal econoey alko `elhk finance t`e hrovidin_ mnofficial emkic and t`eater cu lt u ral infrast ru ct u re mak es it h ard w ork of performers, inclu ding act ors and performances ( st reet performances, for consu mers t o ob t ain law fu l copies emkiciank& An 9frica and 9kia%Hacific$ fest ivals and concert s t h at do not pay of cu lt u ral w ork s. In S ou t h Africa, t h e informal cont ract s b et w een art ist s and au t h ors righ t s, privat e performances at firkt emltihlep in a toonk`ih did not ohen privat e sponsors are oft en t h e primary marriages or fu nerals, et c. ) , w h ich are u nt il 2 0 0 7 . sou rce of income for creat ors. oft en free for au diences. In Africa, t h ese M any creat ive w ork ers in emerging performances can b e paid b y individu al economies, inclu ding mu sicians, art isans, ÉL`e in^oread sector is sponsors. herforeerk and vikmal artiktk$ often find enerqo`ere o`ereas An t`e absence o^ o^Õciad t`eekelvek Zeyond t`e reac` of official adternatines$ cudturad consueers regu lat ion. 0( o^ de_ad eusicad turn to t`e in^oread econoeq Informal dist rib u t ion ch annels in S ou t h s`oos are in 9bi\ban&Ê Africa, B raz il, India, R u ssia and B olivia In emerging cou nt ries, t h e h igh prices of h ave b ecome so effect ive t h at law fu l cu lt u ral goods, low incomes, and ch eap dist rib u t ors somet imes t ry t o u se t h em. Director of Abidjan’s Palais de la Culture digit al t ech nologies comb ine t o fost er T h e N igerian h ome video indu st ry — now piracy . R elat ive t o incomes, ret ail prices t`e kecond%lar_ekt file indmktry in t`e of CD s, D V D s are 5 - 1 0 t imes h igh er in w orld — w as b u ilt on informal dist rib u t ion B raz il, R u ssia, and S ou t h Africa t h an in net w ork s, and it s su ccess is encou raging t h e U S or E u rope. t h eir ex t ension t h rou gh ou t Africa. | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries *1

e ativ e e s in fivegions al and crtrie al r ur ult C indus glob | 30 Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries

T h is sect ion h igh ligh t s t h e w eigh t , drivers and ch allenges Th is sect ion also inclu des 1 7 cou nt ry focu ses t o illu st rat e of cmltmral and creative indmktriek in five _loZal re_ionk2 khecific and kelected ;;A trendk and c`allen_ek in different local 9kia%Hacific$ =mrohe$ Fort` 9eerica$ Datin 9eerica and t`e mark et s. Carib b ean and Africa and t h e M iddle E ast . Select ed cou nt ries, select ed sect ors and corresponding page F or each region, w e propose: nu mb ers are as follow s: • A panorama of CCI in each glob al regions, h igh ligh t ing t h eir khecific trendk$ ktren_t`k and driverk in t`e re_ionk3 • A preview , providing a forw ard- look ing analy sis of t h e main ch allenges t o develop CCI, according t o local tech nical evolu t ions, innovat ion and economic ou t look J ap an of each glob al region. A rch itecture/ new sp ap ers and m ag az ines U S A U K F rance R ussia Pag e 4 0 Perf o rm ing arts/ T V G am ing / visual arts Bo o k s/ advertising Perf o rm ing arts Pag e 6 0 Pag e 5 0 Pag e 4 8 Pag e 5 2 Canada T urkey China M usic/ g am ing M usic Perf o rm ing arts/ Pag e 5 8 Pag e 5 3 m o vie Pag e 4 1 Pag e 4 2 S outh K orea M usic/ T V Pag e 7 4 Pag e 3 8 Pag e 6 6 N igeria M ex ico M usic/ m o vie A ustralia T V / bo o k s Perf o rm ing arts/ advertising Pag e 6 8 Pag e 7 8 Pag e 3 6 B razil S outh A frica T V /m usic V isual arts/ radio India N ew sp ap ers and Pag e 7 6 Pag e 8 0 m ag az ines/ m o vie E gyp t M iddle E ast V isual arts/ m o vie V isual arts/ T V | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries +)

9sia%HaciÕc Knahs`ot U S $ 7 4 3 b 1 2 . 7 m ;;A renenues ;;A eehdoqeent ;;A jenefmes if Asia-Pacific MKb! if *()+ V isu al art s 1 9 1 .5 N ew spapers and magaz ines 1 4 1 .6 T V 1 1 8 . 0 Arch it ect u re 1 1 7 . 2 Advert ising 6 8 . 5 B ook s 4 8 .7 G aming 4 7 . 1 M ovie 2 5 . 9 M u sic 1 6 .3 P erforming art s 1 4 . 5 R adio 6 .1 S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 ;;A bgbs if Asia-Pacific if *()+ V isu al art s 3 , 2 8 4 ,0 0 0 T V 1 ,9 4 3 , 0 0 0 B ook s 1 ,7 0 4 ,0 0 0 N ew spapers and magaz ines 1 ,6 3 0 ,0 0 0 P erforming art s 1 ,3 4 9 ,0 0 0 M u sic 1 , 2 9 4 ,0 0 0 M ovie 7 7 4 ,0 0 0 Arch it ect u re 4 9 2 ,0 0 0 Advert ising 4 5 3 ,0 0 0 G aming 2 5 2 ,0 0 0 R adio 1 7 7 ,0 0 0 S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 T ot al for j ob s and revenu es h ave b een est imat ed aft er removal of dou b le- cou nt ing. T h e su m of each sect or ex ceeds t h e consolidat ed t ot al as some cu lt u ral act ivit ies are cou nt ed in t w o sect ors ( for inst ance, live mu sic is inclu ded in “ M u sic” and in “ P erforming art s” ) . | +* Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Hanoraea

Hrenieo >ree ^or add Media freedom and freedom of >roe `erita_e to in\ustrq expression are very limited in many Poor copyright protection ceases to be Asian economies, a factor that impedes Many economies in Asia-Pacific have an advantage. T h e G lob al Int ellect u al the development of CCI. According identified CCI as a high-potential P ropert y Cent er ( G IP C) IP Index su ggest s t o R eport ers W it h ou t B orders, nearly strategic sector and are st riving t o t h at India, Ch ina and ot h er sou t h east h alf of t h e 2 0 economies w it h t h e most promot e t h eir development and enh ance Asian cou nt ries need mu ch st ronger, rektricted hrekk are in 9kia%Hacific$ t h eir compet it iveness. Creat ive h u b s b et t er enforced prot ect ion of int ellect u al not ab ly N ort h K orea, Iran, M ainland and clu st ers h ave mu sh roomed u nder propert y . India scores j u st 6 . 2 4 / 2 5 and Ch ina, V iet nam, Laos, U z b ek ist an, S ri t h e impet u s of policy mak ers. Among Ch ina 9 . 1 3 / 2 5 , compared w it h a score of Lank a and K az ak h st an. E ven democrat ic t h e b est k now n are H ong K ong’ s J ock ey 2 2 . 5 / 2 5 for t h e U K . Ignoring copy righ t , st at es in nort h east Asia oft en score Clu b Creat ive Art s Cent re ( J CCAC) , w h ile morally w rong, mak es it ch eaper poorly . In t h e lat est su rvey , S ou t h K orea W est K ow loon Cu lt u ral D ist rict , and t o access cu lt u ral goods from elsew h ere, fell kip hlacek to finik` -(t`$ and Laioan B eij ing’ s 7 9 8 D aish anz i Art D ist rict . F or b u t can impede t h e development of slid t w o places t o 4 7 t h . inst ance, J CCAC serves du al roles: as domest ic cu lt u ral indu st ries. an art s village, it h elps su pport t h e art s The informal economy remains É An\ia is t`e oord\Ìs commu nit y ’ s needs from art st u dio t o dominant in the region, accou nt ing for secon\ dar_est earket operat ion space, and as an art cent er, U S $ 2 5 . 2 b of sales and 6 7 0 , 6 0 0 j ob s in it sh ow cases art w ork s and w elcomes 2 0 1 3 . P iracy rat es are especially h igh ^or QouLube eusic visit ors. In 2 0 1 4 , it provided 1 3 6 in t h e mu sic, T V , movie and gaming ni\eos$ oit` cdose to st u dio u nit s and at t ract ed an est imat ed indu st ries: 9 0 % of D V D sales and 9 5 % 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 visit ors du ring t h e y ear. of recorded mu sic sales in Asia are )(( eiddion in\ini\uad T h e slow b u t st eady development of t h e est imat ed t o involve u nlaw fu l copies. nieoers her eont`&Ê AS E AN E conomic Commu nit y sh ou ld also R egu lat ions and inst it u t ions are w eak : facilit at e t h e development of a cross- t h e informal economy may generat e b order creat ive economy in part s of t h e h alf of all G D P and provide a large A chille F orler 9kia%Hacific re_ion& maj orit y of j ob s. MD at Universal Music Publishing | +, Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

The combination of rising leisure ex port s h ave h elped sh ift percept ions Y ork , London and P aris. H u ge pu b lic and time, communication and education is of K orea: a su rvey b y t h e K orea hrivate invekteent `ak Öooed into t`e enhancing international awareness of Int ernat ional T rade Associat ion fou nd creat ive and cu lt u ral sect or as a resu lt . the region’s creative potential. M aj or t h at 8 0 % of respondent s from J apan, Chinese collectors have become hugely cu lt u ral event s h ave h elped h igh ligh t M ainland Ch ina, T aiw an and V iet nam influential in global visual arts markets progress, not ab ly u niversal ex posit ions at b elieved t h at H ally u h ad posit ively and Chinese investors are rapidly Aich i ( J apan) in 2 0 0 5 , S h angh ai ( Ch ina) inÖmenced t`e hmrc`ake of Komt` Corean expanding into cinema, gaming and in 2 0 1 0 and Y eosu ( S ou t h K orea) in produ ct s. In 2 0 1 1 , S ou t h K orean cu lt u ral TV. Ch inese collect ors h ave b ecome 2 0 1 2 . T h e region is also h ome t o some ephortk$ inclmdin_ filek$ emkic and LN hrolific Zmyerk in _loZal fine art earcetk$ of t h e w orld’ s b est - k now n t radit ional sh ow s, h it a record U S $ 4 . 2 b . S ou t h acq u iring b ot h Ch inese and W est ern art fest ivals: Ch erry B lossom ( J apan) , K orea is now a role model for Asian for display in privat e collect ions or in t h e S ongk ran ( T h ailand) , D iw ali ( India) and cou nt ries t h at are seek ing t o redu ce cou nt ry ’ s rapidly - ex panding net w ork of t h e Lant ern F est ival ( Ch ina) . t h eir reliance on import ed ent ert ainment mu seu ms and galleries. F ine art sales and provide j ob s for art ist s, w rit ers, of U S $ 1 2 . 5 b in 2 0 1 3 made Ch ina t h e =xhortin_ cudturad eo\eds produ cers, set and cost u me designers, w orld’ s second- largest mark et , aft er t h e and ot`erk involved in file and televikion U S . M u seu ms are also an int egral part N ew Asian cu lt u ral indu st ry models produ ct ion. of t h e cou nt ry ’ s cu lt u ral renaissance are b eginning t o emerge, aiding AndiaÌk file indmktry ik noo t`e oorldÌk st rat egy : t h eir nu mb er dou b led t o 4 , 0 0 0 regional ex port s. largest in t erms of annu al produ ct ion in t h e decade t o 2 0 1 3 . J apan is st riving t o b ecome a cu lt u ral nu mb ers, t u rning ou t 3 , 0 0 0 movies As audiences increase rapidly, China has su perpow er, b u t more t h an a decade a y ear in more t h an 2 0 langu ages. also begun to stamp its authority on the aft er it s incept ion, t h e G overnment ’s O nce cent ered largely u pon mu sical film industry. T h e rapid opening of new ;ood Bahan campaign remains lack lu st er. filek$ koee Andian eoviek increakin_ly cinemas h as led t o soaring au diences. H ow ever, J apanese anime, video games resemb le int ernat ional offerings, and ;`ineke Zop office receihtk noo ranck and manga comics, w h ich appeal t o many t h ank s t o t h e cou nt ry ’ s large diaspora, second w orldw ide ( b eh ind t h e U nit ed u rb an and y ou ng people in b ot h Asia and gain a nich e ent ry t o non- Indian S t at es) . M ainland Ch ina’ s movie indu st ry t h e W est , are st ill t h riving. commu nit ies arou nd t h e w orld, especially is t h riving; aided b y t h e int ernat ional S ou t h K orean cu lt u re h as gradu ally in t h e M iddle E ast and S ou t h Asia. repu t at ion and sk ills of H ong K ong movie gained int ernat ional mark et s, especially ;udturad re%coniuest mak ers, it ach ieved y ear- on- y ear grow t h among t h e y ou t h , since t h e 1 9 9 0 s. T h e of 2 7 % and 3 6 % in t h e past t w o y ears. K orean W ave, also k now n as H ally u , In 2009, a meeting of China’s State D omest ic and collab orat ive int ernat ional reach ed Ch ina via K - pop and T V soaps. It Council declared culture a strategic produ ct ions are gaining art - h ou se also reach ed a b roader y ou t h au dience industry that should generate at amdiencek$ o`ile hohmlar filek$ kmc` via social media plat forms inclu ding least 5% of the country’s GDP. Ch ina’s as t h e D et ect ive D ee series, now w in F aceb ook and Y ou T u b e, w h ere it capt u red “ cu lt u ral st rat egy ” aims b ot h t o sat isfy sh ow ings w orldw ide. t h e at t ent ion of t ech - savvy and cu lt u rally a grow ing domest ic demand for cu lt u re, cu riou s au diences in N ort h America as w ell as enh ance Ch ina’ s h eft arou nd and W est ern E u rope. In 2 0 1 1 , K - pop t h e w orld and b et t er enab le Ch inese w as a glob al ph enomenon, w it h nearly cit ies t o compet e w it h rivals, su ch as N ew 2 . 3 b illion Y ou T u b e view s. Cu lt u ral | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries +-

F ocu s from . . . An\ia B eyond B ollywood: the diversity and richness of Indian cinema Cinema in India: a long- standing and “ B ollywood, ” “ K ollywood, ” Keq Õ_ures thriving cultural cornerstone “ T ollywood” : cinema is p lural S een as a “ cement of societ y ” b y former T h ou gh B olly w ood h as b ecome a b y w ord P rime M inist er J aw ah arlal N eh ru , cinema for Indian cinema, t h ere is more t o U S $ 3 . 6 b in India h as a formidab le t radit ion and t`e comntryÌk file indmktry t`an t`e \irect renenues3 h as long b een nou rish ed b y su pport ive effervescent H indi- langu age produ ct ion government policies. Cinema remains a center in EmeZai& Collyoood filek k`ot 1 8 4 , 0 0 0 popu lar act ivit y every Indian can afford: in Ch ennai in t h e T amil langu age are open air and indoor cinemas are fou nd nearly as nu merou s, as are T olly w ood \irect bobs across t h e su b - cont inent , from t raveling filek froe t`e Lolly_mn_e ktmdiok at cinemas t o single- screen cinemas ( for K olk at a, mainly script ed in B engali. E ach u p t o 9 0 0 people) and t ech nologically - center hrodmcek *(( to +(( filek a year$ advanced mu lt iplex es in b ig cit ies. generat ing an ou t pu t t h at mak es t h e Lgh )( bgp g^fice eajcels if T h ou gh t h ere are no rest rict ions on Andian file indmktry t`e oorldÌk lar_ekt Zy 2 0 1 4 ( U S $ b) iehortk$ locally eade filek doeinate t`e produ ct ion nu mb ers, ah ead of N olly w ood mark et . and H olly w ood. U S / Canada )(&, :etoeen 1( and 1- of filek releaked :ollyoood filek are$ `ooever$ t`e eokt China ,&0 are Indian. O fferings range from t h e ex port ab le. T h ey are very popu lar in mast erfu l art - h ou se w ork of S at y aj it 9kia%Hacific comntriek$ inclmdin_ Kri J ap an *&( R ay t o modern- day comedies su ch as Lank a, B angladesh , N epal and P ak ist an,

N ewsp ap ers: a booming industry for a rising middle class At a t ime w h en some renow ned W est ern A p romising future T op countries by newsp ap er sales new spapers h ave dow nsiz ed or sh ift ed R egional langu age new spapers are t o online edit ions, t h e Indian new spaper ex pect ed t o ach ieve dou b le- digit grow t h 1 . India indu st ry is b ooming. in t h e nex t 1 0 y ears as millions of new ly 2 . China T he world’ s biggest newsp ap er lit erat e cit iz ens in mid- siz ed t ow ns 3 . J ap an market ch oose new spapers as t h eir primary sou rce of informat ion. Among t h e t op 4 . U nited S tates T h e Indian new spaper indu st ry is divided local- langu age dailies ( ex clu ding H indi int o t w o mark et s: regional new spapers and E nglish ) , Manorama in K erala is read 5 . Germany ( mainly in H indi, su ch as Dainik Bhaskar in M alay alam and t h e Daily Thanthi in and Dainik Jagran) , and E nglish T amil, w h ile Lokmat gat h ers a M arat h i S ou rce: W orld Associat ion of N ew spapers and new spapers, inclu ding The Times of India, au dience in t h e M u mb ai h int erland in t h e N ew s P u b lish ers t h e w orld’ s largest circu lat ion E nglish st at e of M ah arash t ra. langu age new spaper, and t h e Hindustan S ince int ernet penet rat ion remains poor Times. D emocrat ic India h as h ad a long in India — 8 0 % of t h e popu lat ion st ill lack s `iktory of hrint neok3 t`e firkt neokhaher int ernet access — Indian new spapers, w as fou nded more t h an 2 3 0 y ears ago. w h ich can b e delivered for less t h an T oday , t h ere are more t h an 8 2 , 0 0 0 U S $ 2 a mont h , are mu ch more accessib le new spapers. India is already t h e w orld’ s for a fast - grow ing middle class. b iggest mark et w it h 1 1 0 million copies sold daily . R eadersh ip is even great er, T h is is encou raging advert isers t o spend as each copy is oft en sh ared b y several more on print . T h ey h ave discovered t h e readers. vast diversit y of vernacu lar print media A recent st u dy from t h e F ICCI su ggest ed and it s ab ilit y t o reach consu mers in t h at t h e valu e of t h e Indian new spaper t`rivin_ eedime%kired citiek& ;lakkified indu st ry h as grow n b y t w o- t h irds in t h e advert isement s in local papers h ave past six y ears. In 2 0 0 5 , t h e t ot al indu st ry largely replaced t radit ional mat ch mak ers w as w ort h U S $ 2 . 6 4 b . T h is rose t o in findin_ earria_e hartnerk for yomn_ U S $ 4 . 3 7 b in 2 0 1 0 . men and w omen. N ew spapers play an import ant social and edu cat ional role in India; b u y ing a paper is oft en seen as h elpfu l in edu cat ing ch ildren. | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 3 7

9ustradia P ioneer of the advertising industry A ustralia is becoming a global A ustralian advertising sp end in 2 0 1 3 — Keq Õ_ures advertising industry benchmark breakdown by medium Au st ralia h as a small, b u t soph ist icat ed, 1 % advert ising mark et . In t erms of ad 4 % U S $ 1 2 . 3 b spend per person, Au st ralia rank ed t h ird 5 % o^ a\nertisin_ renenue w orldw ide in 2 0 1 4 , w it h spending per h ead of U S $ 5 0 4 , b eh ind only t h e U S 8 % 3 0 % notc`e\ uh bq ee\ia ( U S $ 5 6 5 ) and N orw ay ( U S $ 5 3 8 ) . 4 % coehanies in *()+3 Au st ralian advert ising ex ecu t ives 1 8 0 , 0 0 0 are renow ned for t h eir creat ivit y . An int ernat ional evalu at ion of advert ising 1 8 % heohde eehdoqe\ in indu st ry creat ive aw ard w inners, a\nertisin_ an\ earketin_ in L`e ?unn Jehort, pu t Au st ralia fou rt h 9ustradia in *()) in it s 2 0 1 4 rank ing. 4 % 2 6 % Amsljalia was gfe g^ l`e fijsl countries to go digital D igit al F ree- t o- air T V P ay - T V Au st ralian advert ising h as rapidly gone N ew spapers M agaz ines R adio digit al. R evenu es from online advert ising D irect ories O u t door Cinema more t h an dou b led b et w een 2 0 1 0 and 2 0 1 4 , ou t pacing grow t h in t h e U S . T h ey S ou rce: CE AS A, 2 0 1 4 are ex pect ed t o carry on grow ing b y 1 0 . 2 % a y ear b et w een 2 0 1 4 and 2 0 1 9 . D igit al advert ising b ecame t h e dominant mediu m in Au st ralia in 2 0 1 3 , secu ring 3 0 % of t h e mark et , compared w it h 2 7 % in t h e U S and 2 5 % on average w orldw ide. T ot al online advert ising w as U S $ 3 . 9 8 b compared w it h U S $ 3 . 8 7 b for advert ising on b roadcast T V . | 3 8 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

P erforming arts in A ustralia: a thriving sector W it h in t h e creat ive indu st ries, mu sic and A whirlwind of creativity Keq Õ_ures performing art s h ave sh ow n one of t h e T h e S y dney O pera H ou se is t oday one of st rongest performances over t h e past t h e b u siest performing art s cent ers in t h e five yeark& Liccet kalek in *()+ _enerated w orld, st aging u p t o 2 , 5 0 0 performances t ot al revenu e of U S $ 1 . 4 8 b , u p 2 2 . 7 % and event s every y ear, and at t ract ing an U S $ 1 . 4 8 b on 2 0 1 2 . est imat ed fou r million visit ors. ticket sades3 A vibrant live music scene In Au st ralia, t h ere are a large nu mb er 3 4 , 2 7 7 Au st ralia h as long h ost ed a lively mu sic of performing art s organiz at ions, heohde oorkin_ in eusic an\ kcene$ Zenefitin_ froe connectionk part icu larly b ecau se of an enq u iry t`e her^orein_ arts w it h E nglish - langu age au diences and `eld in )111$ o`ic` led to ki_nificant performers w orldw ide. Au st ralian measu res in government su pport cont emporary mu sic performers, t h rou gh t h e Au st ralian Cou ncil. In inclu ding K y lie M inogu e, X avier R u dd, fact , t h e performing art s sect or is O livia N ew t on J oh n, and IN X S , are su pport ed b y t h e st at e t h rou gh t h e int ernat ional st ars. W it h a mix of maj or Au st ralian P erforming Art s Cent res t ou ring act s and a b u rgeoning local Associat ion. Au st ralia’ s int ernat ional emkic kcene fillin_ kta_ek$ EelZomrne visib ilit y is reinforced b y t h e Au st ralian h as b ecome Au st ralia’ s live mu sic capit al, P erforming Art s M ark et ( AP AM ) , and is h ome t o fest ivals, inclu ding: an int ernat ional indu st ry event for S ou ndw ave, w h ich spans rock , met al and cont emporary performing art s. AP AM pu nk ; Lanew ay ( indie mu sic) ; and S u gar sh ow cases Au st ralian act s, and promot es M ou nt ain, w h ich mix es cont emporary collab orat ion and ex ch ange w it h foreign mu sic, visu al art s and new media. indu st ry cou nt erpart s t o b olst er t h e ex port of Au st ralian performing art s. T otal revenues from live p erformances in A ustralia, 2 0 0 4 – 2 0 1 3 ( U S $ m) 1 6 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 8 0 0 6 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 S ou rce: Live P erformance Indu st ry in Au st ralia, E Y , 2 0 1 4 | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 3 9

Bahan A rchitecture is driven by home- building 8 7 % of J ap an’ s home sales are new valu e in J apan: aft er 1 5 y ears, a h ome w orld’ s most prest igiou s arch it ect u re construction t y pically loses all valu e and is demolish ed aw ard — in 2 0 1 3 . H e h as designed doz ens D emand is driven b y a dist inct ive cu lt u ral on average j u st 3 8 y ears aft er b eing of st ru ct u res, from h omes t o lib raries, ph enomenon: t h e average h ome is b u ilt . T h e ent h u siasm for renew al h as arou nd t h e w orld. In 2 0 1 4 , S h igeru B an demolish ed and replaced every 3 8 y ears; b een encou raged b y nat u ral disast ers w on t h e same priz e for h is w ork w it h and 8 7 % of h omes b ou gh t b y J apanese eart`imacek$ tkmnaeik and firek! and recy clab le mat erials t o craft st ru ct u res b u y ers are new , compared w it h only w ar- t ime dest ru ct ion. in disast er z ones. It is also t w o J apanese 1 1 % t o 3 4 % in W est ern cou nt ries. T h is arch it ect s — K asu y o S ej ima and R y u e means t h at J apan b u ilds as many h omes J ap an, internationally recognized N ish iz aw a — w h o designed t h e Lou vre each y ear as t h e U S , t h ou gh it h as only J apan is an arch it ect ’ s paradise. It Lens in F rance. T h u s, t h e glob al ch anges a t h ird as many people. H omes are not h as fou r t imes more arch it ect s per t ak ing place in t h e arch it ect u ral w orld renew ed b ecau se t h ey are dilapidat ed; capit a t h an t h e U S and t h ey enj oy an are cry st alliz ing righ t now in J apan, w it h h ou ses in J apan rapidly depreciat e lik e impressive int ernat ional repu t at ion. t`e hakt five yeark Zein_ conkidered one consu mer du rab le goods ( cars, fridges, J apanese arch it ect T oy o It o w on t h e of t h e most innovat ive periods in cu rrent golf clu b s, et c. ) . T h u s, h ou ses h ave lit t le 2 0 1 3 P rit z k er Arch it ect u re P riz e — t h e J apanese design h ist ory . R ead all about it O ne of the highest levels of compet it ive environment and act ive sale É L`anks to t`e `i_` newsp ap er and magazine readership promot ions are condu ct ed. diteracq rate o^ N ew spaper readers accou nt ed for nearly J apan’s magaz ine indu st ry is Bahanese heohde$ 8 3 . 6 % of t h e t ot al popu lat ion in 2 0 1 3 . dist ingu ish ed b y t h e pu b lish ing of many D espit e a digit ally adept popu lat ion, manga comics, and a w eek ly comic st rip t`e shrea\ o^ oritin_ J apan h as some of t h e w orld’ s b est selling ant h ology , Shonen Jump, st ill sells t h ree cudture as oedd as new spapers. T h e Yomiuri Shimbun, one million copies. T h e comics on w h ich of five national neokhaherk in Bahan$ Shonen Jump is b ased are sold in ab ou t oedd%estabdis`e\ `ouse h as t h e largest circu lat ion in t h e w orld, 3 0 cou nt ries arou nd t h e w orld, and \edinerq sqstee$ according t o t h e W orld Associat ion t h e magaz ine is now availab le online. of N ew spapers and N ew s P u b lish ers. T h e annu al mark et for w eek ly comic Bahan `as a `i_`er F ou nded in 1 8 7 4 , t h e new spaper magaz ines and comic b ook s is est imat ed dened o^ neoshaher print s more t h an 1 0 million copies for t o t ot al U S $ 3 . 2 b . it s morning edit ions, reach ing more henetration& t h an 2 6 million readers, and anot h er A looming decline Neoshaher rea\ers 4 . 3 million copies of it s evening edit ions. P rint media are losing t h eir appeal for T h e paper’s circu lat ion h as b een st ab le y ou nger people, w h o increasingly read accounte\ ^or neardq for t h e past t w o decades and more t h an online. N ew spaper set * sales h ave fallen 0+&. o^ t`e totad 3 0 % of readers h ave su b scrib ed for over 1 8 % since 2 0 0 0 . 2 0 y ears. It h as 2 9 print ing plant s and hohudation in *()+&Ê 8 , 5 0 1 dist rib u t ors t h rou gh ou t J apan. M oreover, t h e consu mpt ion t ax rat e is R egardless of w h et h er readers live in cu rrent ly ex pect ed t o b e raised again in u rb an or ru ral areas, t h ey h ave opt ions J apan. Associat ions h ave argu ed against According to the Japan Newspaper t o ch oose from among fou r t o seven t ax at ion and called for t h e applicat ion of Publishers & Editors Association general new spapers, secu ring t h e a redu ced t ax rat e t o new spapers. diversit y of J apanese new spapers. It also means J apanese new spapers are in a * A set paper is a su b script ion t o b ot h morning and evening edit ions of t h e same paper. | ,( Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

;`ina F ilm industry under the sp otlight A ttendances break records Ch inese produ ct ions t o veh icle nat ional Keq Õ_ure ;ineea Zop office receihtk in Eainland valu es ensu re t h at t h e Ch inese indu st ry Ch ina su rged 3 4 % t o U S $ 4 . 8 b in 2 0 1 4 , hrodmcek eokt of t`e filek k`oon in% eacin_ it t`e firkt earcet omtkide Fort` cou nt ry . Y et , despit e it s scale, Ch inese America t o ex ceed U S $ 4 b in revenu es. cineea `ak often Zeen confined to U S $ 4 . 8 b domest ic t h emes and b een slow t o o^ box o^Õce receihts B y 2 0 2 0 , Ch ina is ex pect ed t o b ecome t h e w in au diences ab road. T h e t w o most in *(), oorldÌk Zi__ekt file earcet& At ik already popu lar genres in Ch ina are comedies t h e most import ant mark et for many and romant ic comedies, oft en deeply U S - made movies, and Transformers: eeZedded in ;`ineke cmltmre and findin_ Age of Extinction oak t`e Zekt Zop%office lit t le resonance ab road. T o develop, :lgssgeif_ bgp g^fice jeceihls if performer in Ch ina in 2 0 1 4 . t h e indu st ry needs t o mak e movies China ( U S $ b) T h is grow t h is mainly driven b y t h e w it h w ider appeal, especially if t h ey 4 . 8 emergence of a middle class and t h e are t o sh ow case Ch inese cu lt u re as t h e rapidly grow ing nu mb er of screens: t h e G overnment w ish es. Co- produ ct ion is 3 . 6 Ch inese cinema indu st ry h as added cu rrent ly seen as t h e b est w ay t o ach ieve t h is goal. O ne ex ample is Wolf Totem — 2 . 7 2 0 , 0 0 0 screens in t h e past decade and direct ed b y F rench man J ean- J acq u es is opening new cinemas at t h e rat e of Annau d — a Ch ina- F rance co- produ ct ion 1 8 screens a w eek . t h at earned more t h an U S $ 1 0 0 m at t h e L`e ;`ifese file if\msljq is slill Zop office& very local 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 S t rict import q u ot as and h ist oric S ou rce: M P AA, 2 0 1 5 emph asis u pon t h e import ance of R einventing ancient p erforming arts traditions Keq Õ_ure A broad set of comp etencies O ne of t h e b iggest proj ect s recent ly T h ere h as b een a long t radit ion of w as t h e const ru ct ion of t h e H an S h ow U S $ 3 . 2 b performing art s ( especially Ch inese T h eat re in W u h an, a cit y of 1 0 million opera) t h rou gh ou t Ch ina’ s long cu lt u ral people. T h is st at e- of- t h e- art t h eat er w it h o^ her^orein_ arts box h ist ory . E arly forms of Ch inese drama 2 , 0 0 0 seat s h as b een pu rpose- b u ilt t o o^Õce renenues in *()) w ere simple, b u t over t ime, t h ey inclu ded h ou se t h e b rand new t h eat rical, acrob at ic mu sic, song and dance, mart ial art s w at er spect acle, The Han Show, b y and acrob at ics, and lit erary art forms t o B elgian t h eat er direct or F ranco D ragone. Faligfal hej^gjeif_ ajls bgp g^fice if b ecome w h at w e now call Ch inese opera. T h e proj ect h as b een developed b y China ( CN Y 1 , 0 0 0 ) Ch inese real est at e conglomerat e W anda T oday , t h e performing art s in Ch ina are a G rou p, w h ich invest ed U S $ 4 0 9 m in 1 , 9 7 6 , 0 0 0 mix t u re of t radit ional performances and Zmildin_ t`e t`eater ak it diverkifiek into more modern sh ow s, accompanied b y t h e ent ert ainment b u siness. 1 , 0 8 0 , 0 0 0 t h e emergence of performing art s b rands W anda h as inclu ded t h eat ers, cinemas, and cent ers. amu sement park s, h ot els and W anda 1 3 3 , 1 1 8 2 8 8 ,2 0 0 W it h t h e commercializ at ion of performing P laz a sh opping malls in it s plans for art s in Ch ina, a fast - grow ing middle class, developing it s cu lt u ral t ou rism b u siness. and t h e mu lt iplicat ion of new proj ect s 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 and performance space const ru ct ion, sales of t ick et s for performing art s S ou rce: D ao S t rat egy Cent re for Cu lt u ral R esearch nat ionw ide h ave b een grow ing st eadily since 2 0 0 8 . | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries ,)

Kout` Korea M usic industry set to hit a high note Global music recording industry t raining t o prepare t h em for pre- t arget ed Keq Õ_ures revenues fall, but K orea is bucking mark et s, ensu ring t h ey mast er t h e the trend langu age and cu lt u re. H ow ever, t h e O ne lesson from S ou t h K orea’ s mu sic indu st ry is carefu l t o ensu re it cont inu es mark et is t h at sou nd law s, comb ined w it h t o service it s nat ional mark et t oo, as t h is U S $ 2 1 1 m a ric` and diverkified rehertoire$ can ktill st ill accou nt s for more t h an 8 0 % of mu sic o^ recor\e\ eusic u nderpin grow t h . S ince 2 0 0 5 , w h en it sales. K orean popu lar mu sic ( K - pop) renenues3 w as t h e w orld’ s 3 3 rd mark et b y revenu es, draw s u pon elect ronic mu sic, h ip- h op, S ou t h K orea h as grow n t o b ecome t h e pop, rock and R & B mu sic. D eveloped U S $ 4 0 9 m w orld’ s 1 0 t h - largest recorded mu sic over 2 0 y ears, it h as b een adopt ed b y mark et . In 2 0 1 3 , revenu es cont inu ed t eenagers and y ou ng adu lt s t h rou gh ou t o^ dine eusic sades t o su rge, grow ing 9 . 7 % and mak ing Asia, cau sing t h em t o mimic t h e fash ions S ou t h K orea t h e second- largest recorded and st y les of idoliz ed K orean grou ps emkic earcet in 9kia%Hacific after Bahan and singers. T h e glob al su ccess of P sy ’ s ( w h ich ex perienced a fall of 1 6 . 7 % in ?an_nae Ktqde h as b een emu lat ed recorded mu sic revenu es) . S ou t h K orea b y grou ps su ch as Kuher Bunior and is one of t h e w orld’ s largest su b script ion *N=), w h o h ave sold millions of CD s and mark et s, w it h su b script ion services concert t ick et s elsew h ere in Asia. accou nt ing for 8 5 % of digit al mu sic and A reservoir of musical talent 4 3 % of all mu sic revenu es. S ou t h K orea is also a pow erh ou se in L ocal artists and audiences classical mu sic. S ou t h K orean mu sicians underwrite international growth do w ell in int ernat ional mu sic cont est s T h e K orean mu sic indu st ry h as b ecome a and are regu lar w inners of t h e Q u een formidab le mach ine for developing art ist s E lisab et h M u sic Compet it ion aw ards. on an indu st rial scale. It now dominat es Au diences for classical mu sic are t h e Asian scene and ch allenges American oft en y ou nger t h an in ot h er developed emkical inÖmence t`ere& Hotential artiktk cou nt ries. S ou t h K orea also h as st rong are identified o`ile t`ey are very yomn_ j az z , h ip- h op and elect ronic art ist s, b u t and follow 5 t o1 0 y ears of int ensive t h ey are largely oversh adow ed b y t h e su ccess of K - pop. S ign here: subscrip tions conq uer digital music sales 2 % 3 % 6 % 7 % 1 0 % 9 % 9 % 1 8 % 1 7 % 1 7 % 2 0 % 2 2 % 3 6 % 7 4 % 8 5 % 4 8 % 5 2 % 4 3 % 1 6 % 6 % 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 D ow nloads S u b script ions M ob ile Ad- su pport ed O t h er S ou rce: IF P I, 2 0 1 4 | ,* Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

T elevision is at the center of S outh K orea’ s cultural ex p ort strategy A successful T V industry C-\jaeas cgfimej Asia-Pacific Keq Õ_ure P reviou sly h eld b ack b y government audiences repression and st rict censorsh ip, S ou t h K orea st art ed t o b roadcast S ou t h K orea’ s t elevision indu st ry h as t elevision series in t h e 1 9 6 0 s. Lik e t h e U S $ 1 6 7 m b lossomed since 1 9 8 7 , aided b y t h e cou nt ry ’ s mu sic and movies, K orean o^ renenues ^roe sades o^ lau nch of sat ellit e b roadcast ing in 2 0 0 2 . dramas h ave b een ex port ed across K%\raeas abroa\ Y et , S ou t h K orea’ s T V mark et remains Asia du ring t h e past decade, part of a dominat ed b y t h ree large net w ork s: ph enomenon called t h e “ K orean W ave” K orean B roadcast ing S y st em ( K B S ) , or in Ch ina, H ally u . T h ese dramas M u nh w a B roadcast ing Corporat ion ( M B C) are t y pically cent ered on a love st ory , and S eou l B roadcast ing S y st em ( S B S ) . w it h st rong emph asis on family t ies W it h rivals in Ch ina, S ingapore and and relat ionsh ips. In 2 0 1 3 , K - dramas M alay sia st ill more or less su b j ect t o t h e const it u t ed 8 2 % of S ou t h K orea’ s cu lt u ral h eavy h and of censorsh ip, S ou t h K orea ex port s, earning U S $ 1 6 7 million, u p h as b een comparat ively su ccessfu l in fou r- fold in a decade. K B S ’ s Done Jain, developing it s programs t o appeal t o a st arring J ang G eu n- su k and Y oona, w as glob al popu lat ion. sold t o a J apanese b roadcast er b efore it S ou t h K orea’ s place at t h e leading edge h ad aired in K orea. Cost ing U S $ 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 of t h e digit al revolu t ion mak es it a mark et per episode, it h as since b een sold t o t o w at ch . M ore t h an 4 1 million S ou t h b roadcast ers in 1 2 cou nt ries in E u rope K oreans w ere online b y t h e end of 2 0 1 3 , and Asia, inclu ding Ch ina, S ingapore and t h e cou nt ry is a pioneer of T V via and M alay sia, not ch ing u p U S $ 1 0 6 m in mob ile devices and t h e int ernet ( IP T V ) . overseas sales. M ore t h an 8 million K oreans su b scrib ed t o IP T V offers in 2 0 1 3 . | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries ,+

=urohe Knahs`ot U S $ 7 0 9 b 7 . 7 m ;;A renenues ;;A eehdoqeent CCI revenues in E urop e ( U S $ b) in 2 0 1 3 Advert ising 1 4 3 .7 T V 1 2 9 .2 V isu al art s 1 2 1 .5 N ew spapers and magaz ines 1 0 4 .1 Arch it ect u re 5 9 .0 B ook s 5 2 . 5 P erforming art s 4 4 . 0 G aming 2 9 .8 M ovie 2 4 .4 M u sic 2 3 . 5 R adio 1 4 .5 S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 CCI j obs in E urop e in 2 0 1 3 ( U S $ b) M u sic 1 , 2 8 9 ,0 0 0 P erforming art s 1 ,1 8 3 , 0 0 0 Advert ising 1 ,0 2 8 ,0 0 0 B ook s 9 7 3 , 0 0 0 V isu al art s 8 0 3 , 0 0 0 T V 7 4 6 , 0 0 0 M ovie 7 0 4 ,0 0 0 Arch it ect u re 6 6 1 , 0 0 0 N ew spapers and magaz ines 6 0 4 , 0 0 0 R adio 1 1 5 ,0 0 0 G aming 9 2 ,0 0 0 S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 T ot al for j ob s and revenu es h ave b een est imat ed aft er removal of dou b le- cou nt ing. T h e su m of each sect or ex ceeds t h e consolidat ed t ot al as some cu lt u ral act ivit ies are cou nt ed in t w o sect ors ( for inst ance, live mu sic is inclu ded in “ M u sic” and in “ P erforming art s” ) . | ,, Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Hanoraea

Hrenieo L`e rise o^ a neo =urohe su ch as apps, st reaming. T o maint ain oayk of accekkin_ finance inclmdin_ E u rope’ s creat ive and cu lt u ral st rengt h , crow dfu nding, t arget ed pu b lic fu nding In a mature market with weak growth in t h e E U ’s framew ork of copy righ t and cu lt u ral leaders’ invest ment ) b ecau se private consumption (0.6%), European prot ect ion as w ell as t h at of e- commerce many b ank s h ave h it h ert o st ru ggled t o CCI need to find new ways to grow. mu st b e adapt ed t o t h e t h reat s posed valu e t h e b u siness models of creat ors. S ome cont ent produ cers are ex panding b y new digit al play ers. T h is inclu des t h e G erman pu b lish ing grou p Ax el S pringer ab road t o reach b igger au diences. S ome ab ilit y of digit al plat forms t o secu re a ( t h rou gh it s American division) h as h ave b egu n t o revit aliz e h ist oric t ies w it h b igger part of revenu e. It mu st also adapt su ccessfu lly invest ed in several digit al neigh b oring regions. Africa h as b ecome t o su pport emerging creat ive b u sinesses and creat ive st art - u ps ( inclu ding P ock et a t arget mark et for some: new spaper h eld b ack b ecau se t h eir cont ent cannot and B lendle) , t h ereb y adapt ing t o grou p Le M onde, T V company Canal+ secu re a fair sh are of valu e creat ed. ch anges in t h e new spaper indu st ry . and ent ert ainment grou p V ivendi are T h e cu rrent deb at e on t h e h armoniz at ion H ow ever, E u rope h as b een slow t o ex panding in F rench - speak ing African of copy righ t and au t h ors’ prot ect ion develop new digit al ch ampions ( w it h t h e cou nt ries. E u ropean T V ch ampions in t h e E U leaves t h e fu t u re of ex ist ing not ab le ex cept ion of mu sic st reaming inclu ding t h e B B C and E ndemol h ave copy righ t law s in dou b t . plat forms) . T o remain a pioneer in t h e long enj oy ed ex port su ccess. R ecent ly , disru pt ive cu lt u ral and digit al revolu t ion, S candinavian T V sh ow s inclu ding The Au t h ors’ righ t s mu st b e at t h e h eart of E u rope needs t o learn h ow t o creat e Killing and Bron h ave w on w idespread t h e deb at e, lay ing t h e fou ndat ions for digit al ch ampions. acclaim ab road, allow ing cu lt u ral a fairer framew ork u nder w h ich t h e fu ll indu st ries in even very small cou nt ries t o pot ent ial of t h e E u ropean CCIs in t erms secu re glob al au diences and revenu es. of grow t h and j ob s can b e u nlock ed. É Oe nee\ to buid\ a E u rope’ s cu lt u ral b readt h and rich ness S ome t ax opt imiz at ion pract ices need cudturad coeeunitq h elps w in glob al au diences for it s cu lt u ral t o b e h alt ed. T h e valu e generat ed b y indu st ries. creat ive w ork mu st b e sh ared eq u it ab ly o^ exc`an_e o^ To retain their leading role, European w it h au t h ors. knoode\_e an\ cultural players must join hands with Kuhhortin_ creatine exherience at t`e emerging creative industries in other parts of Europe. E merging gaming businesses to nurture =urohean dened$ indu st ries in Cent ral E u rope ( Croat ia, cudturad dea\ers to suhhort t`e S erb ia and S lovenia) , T V and mu sic in Lmrcey$ and file in Jmkkia offer Europe suffers from a lack of mid-sized creators an\ to s`are opport u nit ies for E u rope t o increase it s companies in its creative sectors. T h e eet`o\odo_ies& Oe add clou t in glob al cu lt u ral indu st ries. smallest companies lack t h e money :uid\in_ a ^airer de_ad t o ex pand. T h e E u ropean Commission ^ace t`e saee hrobdee ektieated in a *()+ ktmdy t`e financin_ o`en oe are _oin_ ennironeent gap for E u ropean CCI b u sinesses at U S $ 8 . 7 b - U S $ 1 4 .5 b and called for abroa\&Ê Competition from newcomers su ch as neo financial inktrmeentk to kmhhort G AF A ( G oogle, Apple, F aceb ook and t h e indu st ry ’ s grow t h and leverage t h e 9earon! and FetÖip `ave hmt `iktoric development of it s small b u sinesses. N ew L ovro N ola revenu e st reams at risk . T h is compet it ion financin_ kc`eeek emkt Ze invented to also enab les innovat ive revenu e models su pport creat ive b u sinesses w it h new Director of Machina Gaming School, Croatia | ,. Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

| Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries 47

F ocu s from . . . >rance B ook p roduction in F rance is p erforming well T he book market in F rance is 2 0 0 9 and accou nt ed for 1 7 . 3 % of t it les Desp ite a dynamic editorial offering, p erforming well produ ced in 2 0 1 2 ( 2 0 1 1 : 1 5 . 9 % ) . the book industry suffers from a Ab ou t 8 7 % of F rench people declare t h at B esides, t h e F rench b ook indu st ry is general decline reading is one of t h eir daily act ivit ies, st rongly represent ed glob ally w it h F rom 2 0 0 3 t o 2 0 1 1 , b ook sales in F rance and 6 9 % of F rench people over 1 5 y ears H ach et t e Livre, t h e w orld’ s six t h - largest increased b y 6 . 5 % . old h ave read at least one ent ire pu b lish ing grou p, present in 2 5 cou nt ries, b ook in 2 0 1 4 . R eaders’ loy alt y can b e w it h 1 2 , 0 0 0 t it les annu ally . T h e F rench b ook indu st ry h as w it nessed ex plained b y t h e Loi Lang ( Lang Law ) , T he comics industry is a real driving a drop of 4 . 1 % b et w een 2 0 1 1 and 2 0 1 3 . o`ic` iehokek a fiped hrice for Zoock$ engine for the book market in F rance D igit al b ook s h ave increased more t h an b u t foremost b y t h e w ide variet y of t h e 2 9 % in 2 0 1 3 , represent ing € 1 0 5 million edit orial offering, w h ich cont inu es t o M ore t h an 3 6 million comic st rips w ere and a 4 0 % increase in t w o y ears. T h e grow y ear aft er y ear, in nu mb er of t it les, sold in 2 0 1 3 , h igh ligh t ing t h e real int erest rat e of digit al reading h as t ripled from w it h a 6 . 2 % in 2 0 1 3 . of F rench people in t h is indu st ry . In 2 0 1 3 , 5 % t o more t h an 1 5 % , follow ing t h is M oreover, F rench t it les are gaining in t h e b est seller in t h e w h ole b ook indu st ry grow t h t rend. H ow ever, digit al sales are popu larit y , b ot h at h ome and t h rou gh ou t w as a comic st rip: Astérix chez les Pictes, not enou gh t o compensat e for ph y sical t h e w orld: t h e nu mb er of t ranslat ions w it h more of 1 . 6 million copies sold. losses. In t h e sh ort t erm, t h e digit al from F rench h as risen st eadily since revolu t ion does not seem t o b e t h e miracle solu t ion for t h e b ook indu st ry , and more t h an 8 5 % of F rench people B ook p roduction increase in 2 0 1 2 ( in number of titles) admit t o prefer reading on paper. + 6 , 2% 7 9 , 3 0 0 8 1 , 3 0 0 8 6 , 3 0 0 7 4 , 8 0 0 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 S ou rce: S y ndicat nat ional de l’ é dit ion ( S N E ) , 2 0 1 3 | ,0 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

A leader in advertising In 2 0 1 3 , F rance was one of the st ories su ch as Crit eo, an advert ising advert ising reach ed U S $ 4 4 8 m in 2 0 1 4 , E urop ean leaders in the advertising t arget ing st art - u p, q u ot ed on t h e and is ex pect ed t o ex ceed t h e € 1 b illion industry with the U K N AS D AQ st ock mark et since 2 0 1 3 mark b y 2 0 1 6 . Logically , t h is means F rance h ost s leading int ernat ional w it h a U S $ 2 . 5 b capit aliz at ion. Anot h er t h at mob ile is lik ely t o accou nt for an companies, su ch as P u b licis w it h an st rik ing ex ample is T eads, a st art - u p t h at increasing proport ion of t h e digit al annu al t u rnover of € 8 . 5 b , and H avas proposes video solu t ions t o max imiz e ad spend over t h e coming y ears. T h e one of t h e t op 1 0 glob al advert ising advert ising spot s online, ex pect ed t o b e hercenta_e fi_mre cmrrently ktandk at companies. It also h as a my riad of list ed in 2 0 1 5 . 1 4 . 7 % , and is predict ed t o rise t o 2 2 . 2 % small and mediu m companies, w h ich M obile sp ends for advertising in in 2 0 1 5 and su rpass 5 0 % in 2 0 1 8 . represent t h e maj orit y of employ ment in F rance set to hit € 1 b in 2 0 1 6 F rance: 9 0 % of people in advert ising are T h e main driver for grow t h in t h e employ ed b y a company w it h less t h an digit al advert ising mark et in F rance is five eehloyeek& t h e impressive increase in advert ising F rance h as also b ecome a digit al pioneer, on mob ile devices, w h ich rose b y 8 0 % and h as given b irt h t o digit al su ccess in 2 0 1 4 alone. E x pendit u re on mob ile F rance annual advertising revenue forecast Qear *()* *()+ *(), *()- *(). *()/ Lotad internet MKeiddion! 2 , 7 9 1 2 , 9 6 6 3 , 1 8 7 3 , 4 4 8 3 , 7 8 4 4 , 1 7 2 9nnuad _root` ! 5 . 5 6 . 3 7 . 5 8 . 2 9 . 8 1 0 . 3 K`are o^ totad ee\ia ! 2 5 . 9 2 8 . 0 3 0 . 0 3 2 . 0 3 4 . 4 3 7 S ou rce: M agna G lob al Advert ising G row t h F orecast s, 2 0 1 5 | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries ,1

MK V ideo game industry breaks world records Games sold more than video or U K video games companies are micro or socializ e w it h ot h er ch ildren. B y 2 0 1 3 , music in 2 0 1 4 small b u sinesses. T h e mean nu mb er of a st aggering 8 0 million w ere play ing t h e T h e U K h as a long h ist ory of mak ing employ ees is 1 2 0 and t h e median 4 9 . game w orldw ide. M osh i M onst ers w ere w orld- class video games. According t o feat u red in a w ide range of merch andise, E nt ert ainment R et ailers Associat ion M any maj or video game franchises from b ook s t o b at h soap, and even h ad ( E R A) , in 2 0 1 4 , t h e games mark et grew are develop ed in the U K t`eir oon featmre file& b y 7 . 5 % t o reach U S $ 4 b , w h ile video Grand Theft Auto 5 is t h e most su ccessfu l U p to U S $ 1 2 . 5 m p ledged to the U K decreased b y 1 . 4 % t o reach U S $ 3 . 4 b w orldw ide ent ert ainment produ ct of video game industry and mu sic b y 1 . 6 % t o reach U S $ 1 . 5 b . all t ime, inclu ding movies. In fact , it T h e digit al sales of games ( U S $ 2 . 3 b ) are b rok e six different sales w orld records T o b oost t h e B rit ish games indu st ry , b igger t h an t h e comb ined digit al sales of inclu ding: t h e fast est selling video game and indicat ing it s import ance t o t h e video and mu sic ( U S $ 2 b ) . T h e indu st ry ’ s of all t ime b y mak ing U S $ 8 1 5 . 7 m in economy , t h e G overnment lau nch ed a b iggest consu mer mark et revenu e kalek oorldoide dmrin_ t`e firkt *, `omrk new U S $ 6 . 2 m P rot ot y pe F u nd t o h elp st reams in 2 0 1 4 w ere digit al console and ( grossing U S $ 1 b w orldw ide in j u st t h ree st art - u ps in t h e video games sect or. P C ( U S $ 1 . 5 m, + 1 8 % ) , consoles h ardw are day s) ; t h e h igh est revenu e generat ed b y T h e G overnment also annou nced an ( U S $ 1 . 4 2 4 b , + 4 6 % , du e t o st rong P S 4 an ent ert ainment produ ct in 2 4 h ou rs; addit ional U S $ 6 . 2 m over t h e nex t t w o and X b ox O ne sales) , and mob ile gaming and t h e most view ed t railer for an act ion y ears t o su pport t h e S k ills Invest ment ( U S $ 8 5 3 m, + 2 1 % ) . advent u re video game. F u nd: t h is provides fu nding for t raining T h ere are 1 , 9 0 2 video game companies London- b ased M ind Candy lau nch ed for t h e video games indu st ry and ot h er in t h e U K . B et w een 2 0 1 1 and 2 0 1 3 , t h e Eos`i Eonsters as a w eb sit e in 2 0 0 8 . creat ive sect ors. nu mb er of games companies grew b y T h e game allow ed ch ildren t o adopt a pet 2 2 % per annu m. T h e maj orit y ( 9 5 % ) of monst er, solve edu cat ional pu z z les and 2 0 1 4 U K entertainment sales and % evolution vs. 2 0 1 3 4 . 5 + 7 . 5 % 4 . 0 U S $ 3 . 9 b 1 . 4 % 3 . 5 U S $ 3 . 4 b 3 . 0 6 1 % 3 7 % 2 . 5 2 . 0 – 1 . 6 % 1 . 5 U S $ 1 . 5 b 1 . 0 6 3 % 5 0 % 3 9 % 0 . 5 5 0 % 0 . 0 G ames V ideo M u sic D igit al P h y sical S ou rce: E nt ert ainment R et ailers Associat ion, 2 0 1 5 | -( Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

R oaring times for the visual arts industry Nismal ajls aje Õgmjis`if_ T he visual arts contribute U S $ 3 b T he challenge of securing a future for T h e annu al art mark et in London h as gross value added to the U K visual arts b een est imat ed at U S $ 1 3 . 2 b ( second economy each year, and emp loy more H ow ever, over t h e last t h ree y ears, 7 1 % aft er N ew Y ork ) . N ew art fairs in London, than 3 7 , 0 0 0 p eop le of art ist s ex h ib it ing in pu b licly fu nded su ch as F riez e and Z oo, h ave at t ract ed a In fact , t h e sect or h as st rong link s galleries received no fee for t h eir w ork . In large nu mb er of visit ors. Conseq u ent ly , w it h ot h er creat ive indu st ries su ch as fact , 5 9 % did not even receive pay ment cont emporary art h as never b een as arch it ect u re, design, advert ising and for t h eir ex penses, leaving t h em not hohmlar or ak `i_` hrofile ak it ik today t h e compu t er games b u siness. T o t ak e a only u npaid b u t ou t - of- pock et w h en in E ngland. M aj or venu es and fest ivals concret e ex ample: in 2 0 1 3 , t h e 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 present ing ex h ib it ions for t h e pu b lic all over t h e cou nt ry h ave t ransformed vikitork to t`e @ehoort` Oacefield 9rt t o enj oy , according t o a P ay ing Art ist s t h e sect or in t h e past t w o decades, and G allery ( locat ed in Y ork sh ire) du ring st u dy ( Securing a Future for the Visual several visu al art s ecosy st ems h ave itk firkt year contriZmted an ektieated Arts in the UK) . F ift y - seven percent of emerged in places ou t side London. U S $ 1 5 . 6 m t o t h e local economy in art ist s generat e less t h an a q u art er of Increasing nu mb ers of people are b u y ing Oacefield& 9n econoeic iehact ktmdy of t h eir income t h rou gh t h eir art . T h e resu lt art for t`e firkt tiee& t h e Y ork sh ire S cu lpt u re P ark est imat ed is a loss of art : 6 3 % of art ist s h ave h ad Also, t h ere are more t h an 5 0 million it s annu al cont rib u t ion t o t h e local t o t u rn dow n req u est s from galleries t o visit s t o t h e U K ’ s galleries and mu seu ms economy t o b e U S $ 7 . 8 m, according t o ex h ib it t h eir w ork b ecau se t h ey cannot a y ear, inclu ding more t h an 7 million b y t h e Local G overnment Associat ion. afford t o do so w it h ou t pay . overseas t ou rist s. | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries -)

Jussia T he R enaissance of the p erforming arts industry Glorious p ast: a R ussian idea of the A p romising future: signs of rock — from reggae t o j az z t o folk — is p erforming arts industry rebirth ap p ear also grow ing. R u ssia’ s repu t at ion for t h e performing It is not all doom and gloom. T h e B olsh oi T h e R u ssian fest ival cu lt u re is also art s w as est ab lish ed a long t ime ago b y T h eat re reopened in 2 0 1 1 w it h new Öomrik`in_ in t`eater& >or epaehle$ t`e it s ex cept ional classical mu sic, t h eat er produ ct ions b y y ou ng and t alent ed revival of t h e M oscow “ G olden M ask ” and dance sch ools. T h e S oviet period, directork& L`e clakkical emkic field ik fest ival ex h ib it s t h e b est of R u ssian u ndou b t edly , h ad a radical impact on get t ing a b oost w it h V alery G ergiev t h eat er from t h e past y ear t o crit ics as performances in t h e cou nt ry , increasing t ak ing over t h e T ch aik ovsk y Compet it ion. w ell as produ cers from overseas. E very t h e popu lat ion’ s access t o performing M ore su rprisingly , R u ssia’ s fest ival cu lt u re y ear, it improves pu b lic at t endance and art s. “ T h e S oviet U nion w as t h e only is b looming, not ab ly t h ank s t o t h e rapid pay s t rib u t e t o R u ssia’ s rich t h eat er cou nt ry in t h e w orld w h ere amat eu r grow t h of t h e cou nt ry ’ s rock fest ivals. cu lt u re. dancing grou ps performing folk dances, “ R ock on t h e V olga, ” h eld in mid- J u ne, E ven folk performances sh ow some small self- assemb led orch est ras play ing is t h e largest one- day mu sic fest ival in signs of reb irt h . S ome folk ch oru ses t radit ional inst ru ment s, and similar E u rope. E very y ear, t h e fest ival mak es all and dancing grou ps h ave b ecome t ru ly grass- root s init iat ives received st at e t h e possib le at t endance records: in 2 0 1 1 , commercially su ccessfu l. T h e acclaimed financin_$Ê accnooled_ek =lvira Cmnina$ it gat h ered 2 6 0 , 0 0 0 people, in 2 0 1 2 , Alex androv Ch oru s, w h ich specializ es t h e h ead of t h e R u ssian Commit t ee on 3 0 7 , 0 0 0 and in 2 0 1 3 , t h e nu mb er of in R u ssian milit ary songs, t ou rs all over P reservat ion of Cu lt u ral H erit age u nder visit ors h as more t h an dou b led t o reach E u rope, Ch ina and t h e U S . U N E S CO . H ow ever, t h ese t radit ions eore t`an .1)$((($ accordin_ to official su ffered a h eavy b low w it h t h e collapse of st at ist ics of t h e M inist ry of Int erior Affairs t h e S oviet U nion, w h en st at e sponsorsh ip ( G U M V D ) . In t h e meant ime, R u ssia’ s for t h e art s dropped off t h e agenda. fest ival scene in mu sic genres b esides | -* Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Lurkeq B etting on digital to develop the music industry T h e mu sic indu st ry in T u rk ey is Lmjceq `as beef ifÕmefce\ bq sect or’ s income in 2 0 1 2 . In 2 0 1 2 , several ch aract eriz ed as a dy namic indu st ry open develop ments in the digital domain glob al digit al mu sic companies t ook st eps t o development . It is ex pect ed t o reach T h e T u rk ish digit al mark et h as b een t o ent er t h e T u rk ish mark et and signed U S $ 3 1 8 m in annu al revenu es in 2 0 1 7 , resh aped b y t h e copy righ t collect ive agreement s t o t h is end. w h ereas it represent ed only U S $ 2 6 7 m management societ ies t h rou gh digit iz ing At t h e end of 2 0 1 3 , t h ere w ere in 2 0 1 2 and U S $ 2 6 2 m in 2 0 0 8 . T h ere mu sic and est ab lish ing t h e infrast ru ct u re arou nd 3 4 million b roadb and int ernet is a sh ift mainly t ow ard digit al, in parallel for digit al mu sic. D igit al sales revenu es su b scrib ers and arou nd 1 3 million w it h t h e recent w orldw ide t ech nological grew and increased su b st ant ially every mob ile b roadb and su b scrib ers in T u rk ey . advances in t h e mu sic indu st ry . y ear, and accou nt ed for 2 1 % of t h e F u rt h ermore, mu sic produ cers can claim arou nd U S $ 2 7 0 m in roy alt ies, only S ales in the recorded music market ( U S $ m) for t h e ex ploit at ion of mu sic in pu b lic spaces. T h u s, T u rk ey is w ell- posit ioned 1 2 0 t o climb u p t h e glob al rank ing in t h e 1 0 8 1 0 9 coming y ears. 1 0 3 F or ex ample, t h e most view ed Y ou T u b e 1 0 0 ch annel in 2 0 1 1 w as T u rk ish mu sic 9 0 9 4 8 7 sit e M u - Y ap, w h ich at t ract ed more t h an 8 6 4 6 million view s, b eat ing b ot h t h e M iley 8 0 7 9 Cy ru s and O ne D irect ion V E V O ch annels. T h e ch annel h as close t o t w o million 6 0 su b scrib ers. F ighting digital p iracy 4 0 M u - Y ap also act s as T u rk ey ’ s ph onograph ic 2 1 2 3 indu st ry collect ive management societ y , 2 0 w h ich b at t les online piracy t o ensu re 1 3 1 5 u nit y in t h e mu sic indu st ry and h elp 0 w it h digit al licensing. In fact , T u rk ey 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 is planning t o align it self w it h cu rrent development s in t h e E u ropean creat ive P h y sical sales D igit al sales T ot al sales mark et s and t h e import ance at t rib u t ed t o creat ive indu st ries. It plans t o int rodu ce S ou rce: W IP O , 2 0 1 4 new regu lat ions for lau nch ing incent ives and su pport mech anisms t o improve t h e creat ive indu st ries b y fost ering cu lt u ral diversit y and creat ivit y . | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries -+

Nort` 9eerica Knahs`ot U S $ 6 2 0 b 4 . 7 m ;;A renenues ;;A eehdoqeent CCI revenues in N orth A merica ( U S $ b) in 2 0 1 3 T V * 1 8 1 .6 V isu al art s 9 7 .8 N ew spapers and magaz ines 8 0 .0 P erforming art s 6 1 .5 Advert ising 4 6 . 2 G aming 4 0 .3 B ook s 3 8 .5 Arch it ect u re 3 8 .0 M ovie 2 8 .2 M u sic 2 3 . 7 R adio 2 0 . 6 S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 CCI j obs in N orth A merica in 2 0 1 3 V isu al art s 1 , 6 8 5 ,0 0 0 M u sic 8 4 4 ,0 0 0 B ook s 5 3 8 ,0 0 0 P erforming art s 4 2 9 ,0 0 0 N ew spapers and magaz ines 3 3 8 ,0 0 0 T V 3 1 3 , 0 0 0 M ovie 3 0 6 ,0 0 0 Advert ising 2 2 5 ,0 0 0 G aming 1 8 5 , 0 0 0 Arch it ect u re 1 2 9 ,0 0 0 R adio 1 0 6 ,0 0 0 S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 * Inclu ding T V sh ow s and cab le T ot al for j ob s and revenu es h ave b een est imat ed aft er removal of dou b le- cou nt ing. T h e su m of each sect or ex ceeds t h e consolidat ed t ot al as some cu lt u ral act ivit ies are cou nt ed in t w o sect ors ( for inst ance, live mu sic is inclu ded in “ M u sic” and in “ P erforming art s” ) . | -, Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Hanoraea Eixin_ creatine an\ b roadcast arou nd t h e w orld and oft en Growth of cultural and creative output earketin_ tadent to oin ac`ieve _loZal Zop office kmccekk$ remains strong in North America. w h ich movies from ot h er regions V alu e added b y art s and cu lt u ral _dobad au\iences ktrm__le to eemlate& L`e MK%eade file produ ct ion indu st ries increased 3 . 8 % Avatar earned Zop office revenmek of b et w een 2 0 1 2 and 2 0 1 3 . T h e gaming American popular music conquered almost U S $ 2 b . indu st ry is ex pect ed t o grow 6 . 1 % the world in the 20th century and a y ear du ring 2 0 1 3 - 2 0 1 8 , and t h e the cultural influence of the country’s fileed entertaineent indmktry Zy ,&, creative industries has more recently MK eotion hicture a y ear. U S advert ising agencies h ired been reinforced by movies. M any in\ustrq exhorts oere 3 0 , 0 0 0 people in 2 0 1 3 as t h e indu st ry glob al ent ert ainment leaders are N ort h recovered from a slu mp. T h e American American, h aving gained crit ical mass mot ion pict u re and t elevision produ ct ion in a mark et t h at afforded economies 6 times indu st ries, comprising 1 0 8 , 0 0 0 of scale amid rising prosperit y and b u sinesses, remain h igh ly compet it ive ent h u siasm t o develop a new nat ional _reater t`an iehorts w orldw ide. N ort h American au diences ident it y at a t ime of mass immigrat ion. in *()* hrovide +1 of oorld revenmek froe file U S consu mer demand u nderpinned t h e produ ct ion and dist rib u t ion, compared firkt eovie ktmdio in `iktory$ :lacc Earia$ w it h 2 3 % for t h eir E u ropean cou sins. and kmZkeimently$ t`e @ollyoood file indmktry oit` itk kip Zi_ ktmdiok& L`e firkt =ntertaineent is t`e video games w ere b orn in t h e U S t h rou gh naee o^ t`e _aee É ;:; is a\ohtin_ a arcade offerings, su ch as SpaceWar eobide%Õrst strate_q$ and Pong. T h e W arner M u sic G rou p CCI in North America are driven by a b ecame one of t h e t h ree maj or glob al strong cultural appetite. N ort h America o`ic` \oesnt eean record companies. is t h e au diovisu al indu st ry ’ s b iggest aban\onin_ de_acq North America’s CCI strength stems mark et b y sales for T V cont ent from mixing large pools of creative ( U S $ 1 8 2 b ) , movies ( U S $ 2 8 b ) and radio hdat^ores dike LN$ but and marketing talent. Script writers ( U S $ 2 0 b ) . It is also a h eavy w eigh t in t h e rat`er acknoode\_in_ schools clearly constitute a competitive gaming and mu sic indu st ries: it s mu sic advantage for the Hollywood industry. indu st ry sect or ( live and recorded) h as t`at t`ere is sti^^ T h e U S is a net cu lt u ral ex port er in most annu al sales of U S $ 2 3 . 7 b , 3 6 % of t h e coehetition ^roe sect ors. S ales of U S copy righ t - b ased glob al t ot al. cmltmral hrodmctk$ inclmdin_ filek$ LN$ N ort h America is also t h e leader in t h e ot`er eeer_in_ video, recorded mu sic, new spapers, performing art s ( U S $ 6 1 . 5 b ) w it h a hdat^ores in t`e b ook s, magaz ines and soft w are in pronou nced craving for mu sical sh ow s. increasin_dq overseas mark et s t ot aled U S $ 1 5 6 . 3 b T h is is illu st rat ed b y t h e su ccess of t h e in 2 0 1 3 . T h ey t opped t h e foreign sales S u perb ow l mid- game sh ow ( and it s \isharate broa\cast of many ot h er maj or U S indu st ries u niq u e and ex pensive T V commercials) inclu ding ch emicals ( U S $ 1 4 7 . 8 b ) , and t h e dy namic live mu sic indu st ry in earkethdace&Ê aerospace produ ct s and part s O nt ario, Canada, w h ich h as b een grow ing ( U S $ 1 2 8 . 3 b ) , agricu lt u re ( U S $ 6 8 . 9 b ) , 6 . 5 % a y ear since 2 0 1 0 . In 2 0 1 3 , 3 of and ph armaceu t icals ( U S $ 5 1 . 6 b ) . t h e 1 0 b iggest mu sic fest ivals w ere in t h e Canadian TV expert American culture exerts strong U S : U lt ra ( M iami) , Coach ella ( California) influence worldwide, and convey s soft and S u mmerfest ( W isconsin) . pow er. American movies are w idely | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries --

Hrenieo Nort` 9eericaÌs ee\ia Lec`nodo_q an\ \i_itad fu nded b y t h e advert ising revenu es t h ese an\ entertaineent dea\ c`aehions au diences at t ract . oord\oi\e This creative laboratory is supported by North America has long been among targeted and strategic public policies. N ort h America h as dominat ed t h e the front runners in new technologies. Canada h as long b ack ed it s CCI w it h int ernat ional media and especially T oday , S ilicon V alley is h ome t o many of tap incentivek a tap credit for file and t h e ent ert ainment scene for several t h e w orld’ s largest h igh - t ech corporat ions video produ ct ion) and special regimes generat ions. T oday , it s su premacy faces ( Apple, G oogle, F aceb ook ) , as w ell as for t h e gaming indu st ry . T h e cou nt ry st rong ch allenges. Arou nd t h e w orld, t h ou sands of t ech nology st art - u ps. T h e is cont inu ing t o add new su pport , su ch cu lt u ral cont ent is b eing democrat iz ed, region is also a leading h u b for h igh - t ech as t h e O nt ario M u sic F u nd. T h is fu nd, and companies and policy mak ers in innovat ion and digit al applicat ions in t h e dedicat ed t o live and recorded mu sic ot h er pow erfu l economies inclu ding cu lt u ral arena. N ort h American ingenu it y w it h a t h ree- y ear U S $ 4 5 m program, t h ose of E u rope, J apan and Ch ina see and resou rces mak e it a lab orat ory for provides grant s t o t h e mu sic indu st ry t o cu lt u re as a st rat egic sect or. W it h CCI new b u siness models t h at w ill meet t h e address invest ment gaps and su pport revenu es t ot aling U S $ 6 2 0 b , N ort h ent ert ainment w h ims of consu mers, new grou ndb reak ing proj ect s. America now lags b eh ind E u rope and and old. M eanw h ile, increasing effort is b eing 9kia%Hacific and ik lokin_ itk leaderk`ih in L`e Kilicon NalleyÌk c`aehionk Zenefit made t o develop a legal framew ork some sect ors. from net w ork effect s: t h eir glob al reach t h at is more effect ive in h alt ing cu lt u ral N ort h America’s pu nch in cu lt u ral and and large sh ares in k ey mark et s mak e it piracy and prot ect ing IP . In 2 0 1 4 , creat ive mark et s h as w eak ened a lit t le. In easier for t h em t o sh ape mark et t rends ;anada ratified internet treatiek draon t`e file indmktry$ _loZal Zop office fi_mrek and innovat ion in t h e sales of digit al u p b y t h e G eneva- b ased W IP O . It is sh ow t h at alt h ou gh N ort h America’s cu lt u re and ent ert ainment . W it h massive regarded as a “ priorit y cou nt ry ” in sh are of valu e is u nch anged, N ort h cak` hilek$ t`ey alko `ave t`e firehooer t`e fi_`t a_ainkt hiracy lamnc`ed Zy American movies secu red 2 8 % of glob al t o fu nd b road research programs t o t h e Int ernat ional F ederat ion of t h e Zop office receihtk in *(),$ doon froe ex plore new t ech nology applicat ions, P h onograph ic Indu st ry ( IF P I) . +, in *()(& An _aein_$ 9kia%Hacific and t o snap u p emerging ch allengers. leads t h e glob al mark et w it h a 4 7 % sh are T h ey are also ab le t o gat h er massive ( U S $ 4 7 . 1 b sales in 2 0 1 3 ) compared w it h volu mes of dat a t h at provide insigh t s 4 1 % for N ort h America. int o consu mer b eh avior and desires, ?lgbal bgp g^fice _jgwl` *()(-*(), MKb! $ 4 0 $ 3 6 . 4 $ 3 4 . 7 $ 3 5 . 9 $ 3 5 $ 3 1 . 6 $ 3 2 . 6 $ 3 0 $ 2 5 2 1 . 0 2 2 . 4 2 3 . 9 2 5 . 0 2 6 .0 $ 2 0 (6 6 % ) (6 9 % ) ( 6 9 % ) ( 7 0 % ) ( 7 2 % ) $ 1 5 $ 1 0 $ 5 1 0 . 6 1 0 . 2 1 0 . 8 1 0 . 9 1 0 .4 $ 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 U S / Canada Int ernat ional S ou rce: M P AA, 2 0 1 5 | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries -/

F ocu s from . . . ;ana\a M usic, a strong asset making Canada more attractive Digital p rovides half of recorded social ex perience. Keq Õ_ures music revenues T o t ak e advant age of t h is dy namic fab ric P h y sical mu sic sales are falling fast , of venu es, t h e O nt ario Art s Cou ncil dow n 1 5 . 1 % in 2 0 1 3 , b u t t h e slide and t h e O nt ario T ou rism M ark et ing U S $ 4 2 4 m is only a lit t le fast er t h an t h e 1 1 . 7 % P art nersh ip h ave developed a st rat egy glob al average. t o b oost live- mu sic- relat ed t ou rism, and o^ recor\e\ eusic Koarin_ di_ital kalek mnderhin a Öat t o posit ion b ot h O nt ario and Canada as renenues3 recorded mu sic mark et . Canada h as h igh - level dest inat ions for live mu sic. U S $ 8 2 6 m one of t h e fast est rat es of digit al mu sic R evenu es from live mu sic in Canada revenu e grow t h in t h e w orld, w it h are _rooin_ and are directly Zenefitin_ o^ dine eusic renenues receipt s u p 1 0 . 4 % in 2 0 1 3 , more t h an creat ors. In 2 0 1 4 , S O CAN ( S ociet y dou b le t h e glob al 4 . 3 % average. of Composers, Au t h ors and M u sic D igit al now provides h alf of t h e revenu es P u b lish ers of Canada) revenu es from and is mainly driven b y dow nloads ( 8 6 % concert s and live ent ert ainment of t ot al digit al revenu es) . S t reaming h as t ot aled U S $ 1 6 . 6 m, u p 1 8 . 3 % from b een slow t o t ak e off. 2 0 1 1 . Composers and creat ive art ist s increasingly rely on live performances V ibrant live music market, and for t h eir income. M ont real, T oront o strong international p resence and V ancou ver are t h e t op locat ions for live mu sic. Canada h as a long- st anding t radit ion Canadian mu sic is also sh ow ing great of mu sic fest ivals, w it h event s su ch as su ccess in int ernat ional mark et s. t h e F est ival de J az z , F rancofolies, and Int ernat ional revenu es from Canadian- O sh eaga in M ont real, and N ort h b y creat ed mu sic reach ed U S $ 5 1 . 3 m in N ort h east and Canadian M u sic W eek in 2 0 1 4 , from U S $ 4 7 . 7 m in 2 0 1 3 and T oront o. As fest ivals mat u re, organiz ers U S $ 4 3 . 9 m in 2 0 1 2 . are w ork ing h ard t o creat e a premiu m E volution of recorded music markets revenues in Canada ( U S $ m) 9 9 . 8 1 2 0 . 6 1 5 6 . 4 1 9 0 . 3 2 1 0 . 0 3 3 3 . 5 2 6 1 . 5 2 2 5 . 8 2 0 5 . 4 1 7 4 . 5 2 0 . 5 5 . 3 1 9 . 2 1 5 . 5 1 8 . 2 1 0 . 5 2 8 . 7 1 0 . 0 2 9 . 7 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 D igit al P h y sical P erformance righ t s S y nch roniz at ion revenu e S ou rce: IF P I ( 2 0 1 4 ) | -0 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Gaming, a globally renowned industry with active p ublic sup p ort Canada becomes the benchmark for T h e t rend is t ow ard ch eaper games t h at Keq Õ_ures game develop ment are q u ick er t o develop and req u ire few er Canada is h ome t o some w orld- renow ned st aff: companies report t h at t h e average game developers and st u dios, su ch console game cost s U S $ 8 . 7 m t o develop, as B ioW are E dmont on, B eh aviou r req u ires 6 5 developers and t ak es a U S $ 2 . 3 b Int eract ive, B at t leG oat S t u dios, and y ear and a h alf ( 5 8 3 day s) t o complet e. contribution to ;ana\aÌs B eenox . T oday , Canada h as t h e w orld’ s A t y pical mob ile game, h ow ever, cost s ?

MK L`e hej^gjeif_ ajls if\msljq a s`gwcase g^ MK cmllmjal ifÕmefce T he p erforming arts industry is P erforming arts in B roadway — A booming industry, 2 0 0 9 – 2 0 1 5 booming In t h e U S , t h e performing art s indu st ry Keason ?ross 9tten\ance Hdaqin_ oeeks Neo hro\uctions in 2 0 0 8 inclu ded ab ou t 3 , 0 0 0 t h eat er in MK biddion! in eiddion! companies; 2 0 0 dinner t h eat ers; 2 0 0 *(), % )- )&+.- )+&)( )$.*. 3 7 opera and 6 0 0 dance companies; 4 , 6 0 0 *()+%), )&*.1 )*&*) )$,1. ,, mu sical grou ps and art ist s, inclu ding 8 5 0 sy mph onies and ch amb er mu sic *()*%)+ )&)+1 ))&-/ )$,+( ,. organiz at ions; and 6 0 circu ses. M aj or companies inclu de T h e M et ropolit an *())%)* )&)+1 )*&++ )$-** ,) O pera, T h e P u b lic T h eat er, T h e B ost on *()(%)) )&(0) )*&-+ )$-00 ,* S y mph ony O rch est ra and T h e S an F rancisco B allet . *((1%)( )&(*( ))&01 )$,., 3 9 T h e nu mb er of organiz at ions offering live performances cont inu es t o grow , and S ou rce: B roadw ay Leagu e, 2 0 1 5 t h e nu mb er of Americans at t ending live According t o t h e B roadw ay Leagu e, U S $ 1 1 . 9 b t o t h e economy of N ew Y ork performances and pu rch asing recorded du ring t h e 2 0 1 2 t o 2 0 1 3 season, Cit y and su pport ed 8 7 , 0 0 0 j ob s. ones h as b een grow ing consist ent ly . t h e B roadw ay indu st ry cont rib u t ed According t o R eu t ers, in 2 0 0 8 , t h e U S performing art s indu st ry inclu ded ab ou t B roadway' s economic imp act, 2 0 1 2 – 1 3 9 , 0 0 0 companies w it h comb ined annu al revenu es of U S $ 1 1 b ; in 2 0 1 5 , it is :roa\oaq shen\in_

T V industry is “ global” T he U S continues to ex p ort a far h ow ever, many new media forms ( mainly Anktant Nideo& FetÖip$ o`ic` ktreaeed greater number of T V shows than online media) cont inu es t o pu t pressu re 1 0 b illion h ou rs of video in 2 0 1 3 , now other countries on LNÌk eokt hrofitaZle Zroadcakterk& represent s close t o 6 % of t ot al T V According t o a W T O 2 0 1 0 st u dy , t h e U S T h e indu st ry is facing st eep declines in vieoin_ in t`e MK& FetÖip ik clearly noo accou nt s for nearly h alf of t h e w orld’ s view ersh ip and t h e gradu al movement of an int ernat ional play er, w it h 3 6 . 5 b illion t ot al au diovisu al t rade. In 2 0 1 1 , t h e ad dollars t o digit al plat forms. According h ou rs of st reaming per y ear in 2 0 1 5 . MK ephorted file and LN k`ook oort` t o M agna G lob al, advert ising spend T h is is w h y H B O w ill lau nch a st reaming U S $ 1 4 . 3 b t o ot h er cou nt ries, as t h e b ox is ex pect ed t o fall 1 0 % for b roadcast video service in 2 0 1 5 t h at does not office in comntriek kmc` ak ;`ina and net w ork s and 5 % for cab le net w ork s req u ire consu mers t o h ave a cab le or B raz il ex panded. in 2 0 1 6 . According t o T odd J u enger, sat ellit e su b script ion w it h an online a B ernst ein R esearch analy st , t h e U S st reaming service. In 2 0 1 3 H B O is t ak ing According t o t h e E u ropean Au diovisu al t elevision indu st ry is ent ering a period a ha_e omt of FetÖipÌk Zooc and ik noo O b servat ory , in 2 0 0 0 , maj or E u ropean of prolonged st ru ct u ral decline, cau sed compet ing h ead- t o- h ead w it h t h e rival T V net w ork s sch edu led 2 1 4 , 0 0 0 h ou rs b y a migrat ion of view ers from ad- st reaming service. H B O h as 3 0 million of American T V sh ow s; in 2 0 0 6 , t h is su pport ed plat forms t o non- ad- su pport ed kmZkcriZerk in t`e MK3 FetÖip `ak aZomt nu mb er grew t o more t h an 2 6 6 , 0 0 0 or less- ad- su pport ed plat forms. Indeed, 3 7 million. As of 3 0 S ept emb er 2 0 1 5 , h ou rs. In 2 0 0 8 , t h e w orld’ s t h ree most t h e Cab let elevision Advert ising B u reau t h e nu mb er of U S su b scrib ers is over popu lar T V sh ow s in 6 0 cou nt ries est imat es t h at 4 0 % of t h e T V rat ings 4 3 million plu s 2 6 million int ernat ional w ere U S ex port s: Dr House ( 8 1 . 8 declines su ffered in t h e second h alf of su b scrib ers T h e company made U S $ 5 . 5 b million view ers) , Desperate Housewives 2 0 1 4 w ere du e t o view ers migrat ing in revenu es in 2 0 1 4 : t h e fu t u re of ( 5 6 . 3 million view ers) and The Bold and from t radit ional t elevision t o su b script ion w at ch ing t elevision is clearly online. the Beautiful ( 2 4 . 5 million view ers) . ktreaein_ kervicek$ kmc` ak FetÖip& T he industry is facing systemic T V ’ s shift to the internet p resents challenges new growth op p ortunities for traditional p roducers In an age of proliferat ing ch oices, According t o a report b y Comscore, in t elevision remains t h e most popu lar 2 0 1 4 , 4 ou t of 1 0 online u sers su b scrib e mediu m in t h e U S . Americans spend to a kervice$ kmc` ak FetÖip or 9earon more t ime w at ch ing T V t h an ever b efore; FelÕip affmal jenefme ^jge *((* lg *(), if MK eilligf! 6 , 0 0 0 5 5 0 4 . 6 6 5 , 0 0 0 4 3 7 4 . 5 6 4 , 0 0 0 3 6 0 9 . 3 3 2 0 4 . 6 enue 3 , 0 0 0 v e R 2 1 6 2 . 6 2 , 0 0 0 1 6 7 0 . 3 1 2 0 5 . 3 1 3 6 4 . 7 1 , 0 0 0 9 9 6 . 7 5 0 0 . 6 6 8 2 . 2 1 5 0 . 8 2 7 0 . 4 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 S ou rce: S t at ist ica, 2 0 1 5 | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries .)

Datin 9eerica an\ t`e ;aribbean Knahs`ot U S $ 1 2 4 b 1 . 9 m ;;A renenues ;;A eehdoqeent CCI revenues in L atin A merica ( U S $ b) in 2 0 1 3 T V 4 1 .9 Advert ising 2 1 .1 N ew spapers and magaz ines 1 9 . 0 V isu al art s 1 2 .4 B ook s 7 .9 M ovie 5 . 4 P erforming art s 4 .7 G aming 4 .6 Arch it ect u re 4 .4 R adio 2 .5 M u sic 2 .3 S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 CCI j obs in L atin A merica in 2 0 1 3 V isu al art s 3 7 6 , 0 0 0 Arch it ect u re 3 1 6 ,0 0 0 B ook s 3 0 8 , 0 0 0 Advert ising 2 7 3 ,0 0 0 P erforming art s 1 9 7 ,0 0 0 M u sic 1 5 0 ,0 0 0 N ew spapers and magaz ines 1 2 4 ,0 0 0 M ovie 1 1 5 ,0 0 0 T V 1 0 5 ,0 0 0 G aming 3 6 , 0 0 0 R adio 1 7 ,0 0 0 S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 T ot al for j ob s and revenu es h ave b een est imat ed aft er removal of dou b le- cou nt ing. T h e su m of each sect or ex ceeds t h e consolidat ed t ot al as some cu lt u ral act ivit ies are cou nt ed in t w o sect ors ( for inst ance, live mu sic is inclu ded in “ M u sic” and in “ P erforming art s” ) . | .* Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Hanoraea Ledenision is kin_ 9 don_ tra\ition o^ ;reatine an\ cudturad TV is, by far, the most dynamic CCI in exhortin_ cudturad content tourise in Datin 9eerica Latin America, accou nt ing for U S $ 4 2 b in Latin American music and dance styles The Latin America and Caribbean region revenu es, nearly a t h ird of t h e t ot al. have become one of the region’s great possesses a rich cultural and natural Latin Americans revel in audiovisual cultural exports. T radit ional mu sic and heritage. B u ilt u pon ancient civiliz at ions, content. O n average, t h ey spend more dances su ch as t ango, salsa, samb a and t h is h erit age is a cu lt u ral melt ing- pot t`an five `omrk a day oatc`in_ LN$ and Cu b an mu sical fu sions h ave w on glob al enrich ed b y immigrat ion, as w ell as 9 0 % of B raz ilians say T V is t h eir preferred au diences. Celeb rit y singers inclu de common langu ages st emming from new s sou rce. P ay - T V penet rat ion is G ilb ert o G il ( more t h an 5 0 alb u ms t h e colonial era. Across t h e cont inent , among t h e h igh est in t h e w orld, t opping released over fou r decades) and S h ak ira, 1 3 1 sit es are inscrib ed on t h e W orld 4 6 % of h ou seh olds across Lat in America t h e h igh est - selling Colomb ian art ist of all H erit age List , of w h ich 9 1 are “ cu lt u ral” in F eb ru ary 2 0 1 2 . t ime ( more t h an 1 0 0 million alb u ms sold locat ions. All 3 3 cou nt ries of t h e region The TV industry is driven by multi- arou nd t h e w orld) . `ave ratified MF=K;GÌk ;onvention media conglomerates. G ru po G lob o The AV industry is gaining traction as concerning t h e P rot ect ion of W orld in B raz il, G ru po T elevisa in M ex ico and an exporter. R ede G lob o is t h e b iggest Cu lt u ral and N at u ral H erit age. W ell- G ru po Clarin in Argent ina are maj or produ cer of Ledenonedas, a form of Lat in prot ect ed W orld H erit age sit es cont rib u t e companies w it h a spread of T V , radio and American soap opera and one of t h e t o social and economic development press int erest s, capt u ring large au diences most popu lar forms of ent ert ainment b y at t ract ing t ou rist s k een t o discover and produ cing dist inct ive T V programs. in t h e region, w it h dist inct ive st y les t h e Inca, M ay a or Az t ec h erit age, b u t in different cou nt ries. T V sh ow s and also life in Lat in America’ s cit ies and on Business and production skills honed in movies are increasingly ex port - orient ed, it s ranch es. TV have driven significant growth in film especially in Argent ina: for every 1 5 , 0 0 0 production, creating many jobs. T h ou gh h ou rs of programming, 2 , 0 0 0 are t h e indu st ry is st art ing from a modest ex port ed t o int ernat ional mark et s, w h ere b ase, employ ment h as almost dou b led t h ey are increasingly w inning au diences. over t h e past 1 5 y ears. O u t pu t h as Argent ina and Colomb ia rank among t h e b een part icu larly dy namic in Argent ina, toh five ephorterk of foreatk and kcrihtk B raz il and M ex ico, t h e t h ree largest w orldw ide, along w it h t h e U K , t h e U S and mark et s, w h ich t oget h er produ ced Khain& Datin 9eerican foreatk find favor ,(( filek in *()+& in F rance, R u ssia and N ort h America. Lat in America h as also produ ced many :raridian a\udts shen\ w rit ers w h o h ave ach ieved glob al acclaim and commercial su ccess, inclu ding G ab riel G arcí a M á rq u ez , J orge Lu is 5 hours B orges and, more recent ly , P au lo Coelh o from B raz il. Collect ive life is oft en sh aped 1 7 minutes b y t radit ional fest ivals t h at span several a \aq oatc`in_ LN CCI, inclu ding R io de J aneiro’ s Carnival, t h e F est ival of t h e V irgen de la Candelaria in B olivia, and t h e Int i R ay mi F est ival in Cu sco, P eru . | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 6 3

Hrenieo ?ainin_ traction in _dobad É Lo\aq$ oe see a uniiue inform decision- mak ing b y ex ecu t ives earkets _root` herio\ o^ enerq and policy mak ers. M eant ime, M edellí n in Colomb ia, once considered among t h e Latin America’s cultural industries ;;A in Kout` 9eerica$ most dangerou s cit ies in t h e w orld, h as used to be small and concentrated in in ric` countries h elped engineer economic revival from a handful of capital cities. T h is is st ill t h e era of dru g gangs b y developing a trme of LN and file hrodmction$ o`ic` but adso in seadder t h riving indu st rial and cu lt u ral economy . is cent ered u pon t h e maj or cit ies of T h e focu s on edu cat ion and cu lt u re t o Argent ina, M ex ico, B raz il, Colomb ia and countriesÊ drive regenerat ion h as b een cru cial. In V enez u ela. seven y ears, 1 3 5 sch ools w ere renovat ed and eigh t lib raries creat ed. But as quality improves, strong French cultural representative in Colombia A growing understanding that creative newcomers are emerging. T h ey are industries foster both social and b reak ing free of domest ic mark et s t o mark et s. T h e most st rik ing ex ample is economic development is enabling and reac` international amdiencek oit` filek Yo soy Betty, la fea, w h ich b egan life encouraging cross-border cooperation. and T V sh ow s t h at appeal w orldw ide. as a Colomb ian t elenovela, b ecame a T h e M E R CO S U R t rade b loc, comprising Colomb ia is increasingly renow ned for su rprise h it in t h e U S as Ugly Betty, and Argent ina, B raz il, P aragu ay , U ru gu ay it s cinema indu st ry , w h ich is advancing su b seq u ent ly at t ract ed 1 1 million view ers and V enez u ela, h as set u p M E R CO S U R rapidly as t h e cou nt ry opens 1 0 0 in it s Ch inese incarnat ion, Ugly Wudi. Cu lt u ral. T h is regional net w ork of cinemas each y ear. Colomb ia now ab ou t 4 0 0 individu als and inst it u t ions produ ces arou nd 5 0 movies a y ear. Mexico has been a leader in aims t o w ork on st rengt h ening cu lt u ral Colomb ian art ist s are also w inning international modern art markets in informat ion sy st ems in memb er int ernat ional acclaim and ex port ing t o recent years, encouraging collectors cou nt ries. T h e ob j ect ive is t o creat e N ort h America and E u rope. Colomb ia w ill to prospect more widely for talent a single mark et in cu lt u ral goods and b e t h e “ gu est cou nt ry ” at t h e nex t edit ion across Latin America. S t rengt h ening services b y improving k now ledge of of AR CO madrid, a leading E u ropean demand for art w ork s from B raz il, Ch ile, memb ers’ cu lt u ral indu st ries and sh aring cont emporary art fair. V enez u ela, Colomb ia and Cu b a sh ow s b est pract ices. grow ing accept ance and u nderst anding Ch ile, t oo, h as an increasingly rob u st of art produ ct ion in t h e region. A sh ared u se of t h e S panish or indehendent file kcene& An a re_ion o`ere P ort u gu ese langu ages and Lat in cu lt u ral forei_n finance ik often crmcial to file Looar\ eore re_ionad element s acq u ired du ring cent u ries of produ ct ion, Ch ile h as recent ly b ecome inte_ration coloniz at ion h elps facilit at e cross- b order a favorit e among int ernat ional fu nds. cu lt u ral ex ch anges in mu ch of Lat in Ch ile’ s movie indu st ry is aiming t o rival The success of Latin America’s cultural America. T oday , t h e b iggest ex port t h ose of B raz il, Argent ina and M ex ico. leaders is prompting neighboring mark et for M ex ican t elenovelas is not Creat ed t h ree y ears ago, t h e CinemaCh ile countries to seek similar routes to Asia, b u t neigh b oring cou nt ries in Lat in agency h as made progress in b ringing economic growth. Argent ina, B raz il, America. M any cu lt u ral art efact s also file indmktry ktark to_et`er to hroeote Ch ile, Colomb ia and Cu b a now h ave find t`eir oay Zacc to Khain$ kmc` ak t`e Ch ilean cinema int ernat ionally . policy framew ork s designed t o promot e Argent ine comic st rip Ea^ad\a, popu lar in Latin America, as a whole, is t h e development of cu lt u ral indu st ries. S pain for h alf a cent u ry . increasingly exporting cultural content. N ot ing t h eir su ccess, M ex ico, P eru and

É L`ere is a _rooin_ The biggest challenge for home nationad aoareness entertainment companies in Latin America is to substitute paid digital about t`e econoeic sales for pirated DVDs. D igit al t ools and plat forms w ill play an import ant role. T h e iehortance o^ ;;A in middle class is ex panding — one Lat in 9r_entina$ as s`oon American family in t h ree is reck oned t o h ave ach ieved middle class st at u s — and bq narious hubdic increasing b u y ing pow er sh ou ld facilit at e hodicies to Õnance more spending on legit imat e videos. A sh ift online sh ou ld b e aided b y increasing seadd cudturad hrobects& int ernet penet rat ion, w it h online visit s 9 si_niÕcant hart o^ u p 1 2 % t o more t h an 1 4 7 million u niq u e visit ors in 2 0 1 3 . G ru po T elevisa, ;;As$ in soee case now considering developing ex clu sive uh to 0( o^ cudturad programming for video- st reaming service lice FetÖip$ ik increakin_ly active in t`e in\ustries$ are fi_`t a_ainkt content hiracy& suhhorte\ bq nationad Digital also means marketing as oedd as re_ionad an\ opportunities. T h e mu sic indu st ry in Lat in America w as once regarded as docad _onerneents&Ê an ent ert ainment indu st ry b ack w at er, not least b ecau se original recordings w ere q u ick ly pirat ed, u ndermining H ector S hargorodsky t h e revenu es of art ist s and t h ose w h o b ack ed t h em. H ow ever, improvement s in Cultural Observatory, Faculty of Economics, t ech nology , infrast ru ct u re and st andards University of Buenos Aires of living are now prompt ing a mu sic “ gold ru sh ” across B raz il and t h e rest of Lat in goods are est imat ed t o generat e sales of America. It is mu ch easier t o ch arge for U S $ 1 0 m a day , w h ile a t ot al of U S $ 5 0 0 m live performances, and b ig ent ert ainment a y ear of pirat ed D V D s are sold in B raz il companies are b eginning t o t ak e a close and M ex ico. int erest in t h e region’ s st ars. Digital recorded music revenue growth in L atin A merica ( U S $ m) 1 8 2 1 4 3 9 4 8 1 6 1 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 S ou rce: IF P I, 2 0 1 4 | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries .-

F ocu s from . . . Eexico B uilding the book industry from the ground up S tarting from scratch in M ex ico t oday . In fact , t h e lack of b ecome t h e b iggest b ook fair in t h e M ex ican pu b lish ing is a small t rade opt ions ex ist s at every point of t h e su pply S panish - speak ing w orld and is second commu nit y at t empt ing t o b u ild a large ch ain, not j u st t h e end point . T h e scarcit y only t o t h e F rank fu rt B u ch messe and glob ally compet it ive indu st ry — and of specializ ed b ook dist rib u t ors and w orldw ide. M ex ico w ill b e in t h e limeligh t consu mer b ase — from scrat ch . T h e w h olesalers w it h in M ex ico cramps t h e at t h e London B ook F air in 2 0 1 5 , cou nt ry ’ s G D P grow t h of 5 . 5 % in 2 0 1 2 , ÖepiZility of Zmkinekk Zetoeen hmZlik`erk capit aliz ing u pon t h e su ccess of au t h ors, and st at u s as one of t h e fast est - grow ing and b ook sellers. F or inst ance, it is su ch as Carlos F u ent es and J u an R u lfo. providers of sk illed t ech nological j ob s in ki_nificant t`at t`e lar_ekt Zooc fair for E ffort s are also b eing made t o develop t h e w orld, all add u p t o u nprecedent ed t h e S panish - speak ing mark et t ak es place t h e e- b ook mark et . In 2 0 1 4 , M ex ico’ s amou nt s of disposab le income. M ore in G u adalaj ara, M ex ico, and not w h ere N at ional Cou ncil for Cu lt u re and Art s import ant ly , b et w een 1 9 9 0 and 2 0 0 0 , t h e largest pu b lish ing h ou ses ex ist . T h ere lau nch ed Lib rosmex ico. mx , an online M ex ico’ s lit eracy rat es for people aged are also more b ook st ores in B arcelona plat form w it h a large cat alogu e of b et w een 1 0 and 1 5 y ears w ent from ( S pain) t h an in all of M ex ico. M ex ican t it les. It aims t o mak e it easier arou nd 1 2 % t o more t h an 9 0 % . As t h is Going international and digital: two to find and Zmy Eepican Zoock$ ak oell ak generat ion h as reach ed adu lt h ood, engines of growth mak e h ist orical docu ment s availab le for millions more lit erat e people t h an ever free in digit al form. B ook pu b lish ing in b efore are w ielding u nprecedent ed M ex ico is st art ing t o increase it s M ex ico is ex pect ed t o grow b y 4 % a y ear spending pow er. int ernat ional visib ilit y . It is h ome t o t h e du ring 2 0 1 3 - 2 0 1 8 . P u b lish ers cit e “ dist rib u t ion” as t h e G u adalaj ara Int ernat ional B ook F est ival, b iggest ch allenge for t h e b ook b u siness w h ich , since it s lau nch in 1 9 8 7 , h as N umber of cop ies p roduced 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 1 4 5 , 7 5 6 1 4 2 , 8 6 0 1 4 0 , 0 0 0 1 2 9 , 2 1 3 1 3 1 , 8 4 9 1 2 1 , 8 5 3 1 2 0 , 0 0 0 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 8 0 , 0 0 0 8 2 , 2 4 2 7 9 , 4 3 2 7 5 , 4 8 7 9 0 , 0 1 4 9 8 , 5 2 8 ( 6 7 % ) ( 6 1 % ) ( 5 7 % ) ( 6 3 % ) ( 6 8 % ) 6 0 , 0 0 0 4 0 , 0 0 0 2 0 , 0 0 0 3 9 , 6 1 1 4 9 , 7 8 1 5 6 , 3 6 2 5 2 , 8 4 6 4 7 , 2 2 8 ( 3 3 % ) ( 3 9 % ) ( 4 3 % ) ( 3 7 % ) ( 3 2 % ) 0 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 R eprint ed N ew S ou rce: Caniem, 2 0 1 4 | 6 6 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

T V : an ex p ort machine T elevision is greatly p op ular, with produ ced b y G ru po T elevisa, h ave also Grup o T elevisa: a p owerhouse mass entertainment p laying an done w ell in E u rope and t h e B alk ans. T h e throughout the S p anish- sp eaking world imp ortant role in creating a national lar_e and increakin_ly inÖmential @ikhanic G ru po T elevisa h as ex t ended it s culture unifying M ex ico commu nit y in t h e U S h as b ecome a b ig int erest s across T V , pu b lish ing, cab le, =ntertaineent ik EepicoÌk fift`%Zi__ekt mark et for M ex ican T V . T elevisa ex port s t elecommu nicat ions and radio. It h as fou r ex port , generat ing annu al cross- b order it s programs and format s t o t h e U S b roadcast ch annels in M ex ico Cit y , and sales of U S $ 2 7 b . T V programs dominat e t h rou gh U nivision Commu nicat ions — produ ces 2 4 pay - T V b rands for dist rib u t ion t h ese ex port s, especially M ex ico’ s an American media company serving in M ex ico and t h e rest of t h e w orld. In popu lar t elenovelas, for w h ich b roadcast H ispanic America — and t o net w ork s 2 0 1 3 , G ru po T elevisa produ ced more t h an and produ ct ion company G ru po T elevisa in more t h an 5 0 cou nt ries. Last y ear, 9 3 ,0 0 0 h ou rs ( more t h an 1 0 y ears of h as acq u ired an int ernat ional repu t at ion. M ex ican sh ow s w ere seen b y more t h an view ing t ime) of cont ent for free- t o- air and S oaps su ch as Rebelde and El equipo, a b illion T V view ers. pay -T V . T elevisa p roduction hours from 2 0 0 4 to 2 0 1 3 9 3 , 3 2 3 9 0 ,4 9 2 7 9 , 1 5 2 7 4 ,9 2 9 2 . 1 7 2 ,8 9 0 7 1 ,3 2 6 2 .0 6 8 , 8 1 8 1 .9 6 4 , 7 4 3 1 .8 5 7 ,5 4 8 1 . 7 1 . 7 5 4 , 7 9 1 1 . 6 1 . 6 1 .5 1 . 4 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 7 2 0 0 8 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 R evenu es ( U S $ b ) P rodu ced h ou rs S ou rce: G ru po T elevisa annu al report , 2 0 1 4 | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 6 7

:rarid Digital and local music B razil is L atin A merica’ s digital ktyle tyhified Zy K†r_io Jeik$ and E”kica Keq Õ_ures p ioneer P opu lar B rasileira ( M P B ) , w it h art ist s B raz il is t h e nint h - largest recorded mu sic inclu ding Ana Carolina and V anessa mark et in t h e w orld and t h e b iggest da M at a, t o T ropicá lia, w h ich merges in Lat in America, w it h annu al mu sic B raz ilian and African rh y t h ms w it h rock U S $ 1 9 9 . 7 m revenu es of U S $ 1 9 9 . 7 . and roll and ik epeehlified Zy ?ilZerto o^ recor\e\ eusic G il and M aria B et h â nia. T h ere is also renenues in *()+3 W it h CD sales falling sh arply since 2 0 1 1 , t h e M angu e B eat cu lt u ral movement online sales h ave rapidly b ecome a fou nded b y Ch ico S cience. Longst anding U S $ 2 1 5 m maj or dist rib u t ion ch annel for mu sic. ex port st y les su ch as B ossa N ova and D igit al sales su rged 2 2 . 3 % du ring 2 0 1 3 , S amb a h ave more recent ly b een j oined o^ dine eusic renenues in *()+ t u rb och arged b y t h e arrival of iT u nes in in int ernat ional su ccess b y art ist s su ch 2 0 1 2 . D ow nloads earned U S $ 2 5 . 6 m in as Lenine ( M P B mu sic) and M ich el T eló 2 0 1 3 , u p 7 1 % . T ak e- off h as b een aided ( S ert anej o u niversit á rio mu sic) . b y t h e arrival of mu sic st reaming service M u sical ex port s are also seen at t h e D eez er in 2 0 1 3 and rising smart ph one fest ival level: “ R ock in R io, ” one of t h e penet rat ion — t h ere are 2 0 0 million largest mu sic fest ivals in t h e w orld, smart ph ones in u se in B raz il t oday . originat ed in R io de J aneiro and w as M ob ile net w ork s in B raz il h ave seiz ed t h en ex port ed t o Lisb on, M adrid and on mu sic t o h elp sell t h eir dat a services. Las V egas. In 2 0 1 3 , B raz il’ s second- largest mob ile carrier T IM part nered w it h M u ve M u sic t o M usic market revenues in B razil ( U S $ m) lau nch a service offering u nlimit ed mu sic st reaming for U S $ 5 0 cent s a day . A dynamic live music scene driven 3 5 . 1 6 3 . 3 by local artists and festivals 2 4 . 7 3 1 . 2 7 7 . 4 Alt h ou gh digit al services offer mu sic from arou nd t h e w orld, t h e demand for local repert oire remains very st rong in B raz il. B raz ilian ou t pu t is reck oned t o const it u t e 6 5 % of t h e mu sic h eard in B raz il ( inclu ding radio, concert s, et c. ) . 1 5 3 . 2 1 4 1 . 3 1 6 0 . 9 1 4 4 . 8 In 2 0 1 3 , 9 ou t of 1 0 b est selling alb u ms 1 2 2 . 3 in B raz il w ere b y local art ist s inclu ding P adre M arcelo R ossi ( a songst er priest ) , R ob ert o Carlos and P au la F ernandes. T h e B raz ilian live mu sic scene is driven 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 b y local and renow ned fest ivals su ch as R io’ s, and b y a rich nat ional mu sic D igit al P h y sical cu lt u re. T h is ranges from M ú sica sert anej a, B raz il’ s most popu lar mu sic S ou rce: IF P I, 2 0 1 4 | 6 8 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

T V : the most p op ular medium in B razil A national institution about to In April 2 0 1 4 , B raz ilians spent arou nd change 1 2 . 5 h ou rs a w eek on online social Keq Õ_ure B raz ilians love T V : 9 8 % of B raz ilian net w ork s from t h eir desk t op compu t ers, h omes h ave a T V , and ow ning a T V more t h an dou b le t h e glob al average, implies social inclu sion. According t o accordin_ to rekearc` fire coeKcore& U S $ 1 3 . 7 b IB O P E , in 2 0 1 1 , B raz ilians spent more FetÖip `ak entered :raril in *()) and in LN renenues in *()+ t`an five `omrk her day oatc`in_ LN$ k`ook ki_nificant aeZition& Lraditional w ell ah ead of t h e glob al average. T h is act ors argu e t h at B raz ilians prefer popu larit y cou ld b e ex plained b y t h e t elenovelas t o foreign fare. In T V , as in h ist ory of T V development in B raz il. In foot b all, t h ey are lik ely t o k eep root ing fact , T V w as int rodu ced for t h e 1 9 5 0 for t h e h ome t eam; h ow ever, t h e W orld Cu p h ost ed b y t h e cou nt ry . At t h at coehetition oill Ze fierce& t ime, B raz il w as t h e fou rt h cou nt ry aft er t h e U S , t h e U K and F rance t o h ave a T V B razilian T V audiences in M arch 2 0 1 2 st at ion w it h daily b roadcast s. F avorit e programs inclu de T V new s, 5 % 3 % 1 3 % sport s, realit y sh ow s and novelas, a B raz ilian ph enomenon t h at t ranscends 1 8 % class, and is eq u ally popu lar w it h cit y and ru ral dw ellers. In 2 0 1 2 , 3 8 million people w at ch ed t h e 9 : 0 0 p. m. novela Avenida Brasil every day . B raz il’ s au diovisu al leader is R ede G lob o, 1 5 % w it h ch annels t h at are w at ch ed b y more 4 6 % t h an 1 5 0 million people arou nd t h e w orld every day . It is t h e fou rt h largest ch annel in t h e w orld in t erms of au dience siz e. O t h er popu lar t errest rial T V ch annels inclu de, among ot h ers, S B T and B and. G lob o S B T R ecord P ay - T V penet rat ion is b ooming, w it h B and R ede T V O t h ers more and more B raz ilians get t ing access S ou rce: U b iF rance t o cab le t elevision: proj ect ed pay - T V penet rat ion is 4 6 % b y 2 0 1 8 , w it h 2 8 . 8 million residences w it h pay - T V , and 3 1 . 4 million in 2 0 1 9 . | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 6 9

9^rica an\ 3 t`e Ei\\de =ast Knahs`ot U S $ 5 8 b 2 . 4 m ;;A renenues ;;A eehdoqeent CCI revenues in A frica and the M iddle E ast ( U S $ b) in 2 0 1 3 T V 1 3 .8 V isu al art s 1 3 .1 N ew spapers and magaz ines 9 . 2 Advert ising 5 .1 B ook s 4 .4 Arch it ect u re 3 .3 M u sic 2 . 9 G aming 2 . 9 R adio 2 . 2 P erforming art s 2 .0 M ovie 1 . 5 S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 CCI j obs in A frica and the M iddle- E ast in 2 0 1 3 M ovie 5 8 5 ,0 0 0 M u sic 5 0 7 , 0 0 0 T V 4 2 1 ,0 0 0 V isu al art s 3 5 8 , 0 0 0 B ook s 3 1 7 , 0 0 0 P erforming art s 2 7 2 ,0 0 0 N ew spapers and magaz ines 1 6 9 ,0 0 0 R adio 8 6 , 0 0 0 Arch it ect u re 7 0 ,0 0 0 G aming 4 0 ,0 0 0 Advert ising 2 9 ,0 0 0 S ou rce: E Y analy sis of cu lt u ral and creat ive mark et s, 2 0 1 5 3 T h e M iddle E ast refers t o cou nt ries inclu ding: Algeria, B ah rain, E gy pt , J ordan, K u w ait , Iran, Iraq , Israel, Leb anon, Lib y a, M orocco, O man, Q at ar, S au di Arab ia, S y ria, T u nisia and t h e U AE T ot al for j ob s and revenu es h ave b een est imat ed aft er removal of dou b le- cou nt ing. T h e su m of each sect or ex ceeds t h e consolidat ed t ot al as some cu lt u ral act ivit ies are cou nt ed in t w o sect ors ( for inst ance, live mu sic is inclu ded in “ M u sic” and in “ P erforming art s” ) . | /( Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Hanoraea ;udture is eudti^acete\ T h ere is also a vib rant lit erary scene, mu sic st ores in Africa) leave Africans w h o an\ enerqo`ere especially in N igeria. T h e Associat ion of are k een t o acq u ire cu lt u ral goods w it h N igerian Au t h ors ( AN A) h as b een at t h e lit t le ch oice b u t t o do so informally or T h ou gh oft en mat erially poor, many forefront in promot ing N igerian lit erat u re illegally . African societ ies cont ain cu lt u ral and t h e int erest s of N igerian w rit ers. rich es t h at are b u b b ling u p t o emb race T h ese inclu de Ch inu a Ach eb e and h is 9ni\ au\iences crane t h e opport u nit ies offered b y new b ook Things Fall Apart$ one of t`e firkt in^oreation t ech nologies and commercial mark et s. African novels in E nglish t o receive glob al M u sic t h at h as evolved in N ort h and crit ical acclaim, and W ole S oy ink a, w h o R adio is t h e most accessib le w ay t o sh are S ou t h Africa w on ex port su ccess Zecaee t`e firkt 9frican to Ze aoarded informat ion and cu lt u re w it h u rb an and w orldw ide. In recent decades, ch oral t h e N ob el P riz e in Lit erat u re in 1 9 8 6 . ru ral au diences across Africa and t h e singers from S ou t h ern and W est Africa L`e in^oread econoeq2 M iddle E ast . P eople every w h ere list en t o and t h e R ai singers of N ort h Africa h ave b roadcast s in local langu ages. African w oven link s w it h peers elsew h ere on no risk ^or citirens$ no cou nt ries t y pically h ave 1 0 0 - 1 5 0 radio t h e cont inent , and recording st u dios in reoar\ ^or aut`ors st at ions, and commu nit y radio st at ions London and P aris, t o develop new memes are especially common. S mall, local and of t radit ional mu sic t h at appeal t o b ot h T h e informal economy , a sy st em of t rade deeply root ed in t h eir commu nit ies, t h ey African and E u ropean consu mers. or economic ex ch ange t h at circu mvent s h elp st rengt h en and develop t h e African S pu rred b y lingu ist ic diversit y and poor st at e- cont rolled or even money - b ased cu lt u ral mosaic. commu nicat ions, cu lt u re is every w h ere, t ransact ions, is an int egral part of t h e Lelevikion alko epertk `m_e inÖmence and oft en cent ers u pon live performances cu lt u ral scene in Africa and t h e M iddle in Africa and t h e M iddle E ast , oft en of mu sic, w orsh ip and st ory t elling. E ast . Cu lt u ral goods and services are reach ing 9 0 % of it s pot ent ial au dience Craft smen and w omen serve local largely provided t h ou gh t h e informal across S ou t h ern Africa. T V is t h e fast est mark et s, and dance grou ps, mu sicians economy , w h ich is est imat ed t o employ grow ing mediu m in Africa and t h e M iddle and singers perform at gat h erings, arou nd 3 5 0 , 0 0 0 people and generat e E ast . T h is h as b een made possib le at w eddings and fest ivals. U S $ 4 . 2 b revenu es in 2 0 1 3 . last b y t h e ex t ension and reinforcement T h e rich ness of t radit ional African art , T h e w ay people u nderst and cu lt u re in of elect ricit y su pplies, and t h e rollou t of scu lpt u re and mu sic are celeb rat ed in Africa and t h e M iddle E ast reinforces digit al t errest rial T V in 2 0 1 5 , w h ich h as b ot h Africa and E u rope. M u sic fest ivals informal dist rib u t ion ch annels. T h e opened u p t h e au diovisu al landscape. in Africa, inclu ding M AS A in Ab idj an, not ion of “ cu lt u re” is oft en disconnect ed P ay -T V is gaining grou nd, especially in Cô t e d’ Ivoire and F E S P AM in B raz z aville, from t h e economic dimension: in Komt` 9frica& L`e continentÌk firkt hay%LN at t ract large au diences, w h ile E u ropean F rancoph one Africa, people are u sed t o mark et is ex pect ed t o grow b y 7 . 4 % a concert s and fest ivals, inclu ding at t ending fest ivals and performances year Zetoeen *()+ and *()0$ reÖectin_ “ L’ Afriq u e dans t ou s les sens” in P aris and pract icing t h eat re for free. Art ist s t h e gradu al emergence of an African also celeb rat e African mu sical diversit y . rely mhon ot`er financial revenmek$ kmc` middle class. ak khonkork`ih$ to finance t`eir lifektyle& N ew spapers and magaz ines are pu b lish ed É Oe nee\ to brin_ back T h is African at t it u de t o cu lt u re fost ers w idely in Africa and t h e M iddle E ast . free — and illegal — reprodu ct ion of T h ey oft en serve very local au diences t`e aut`enticitq o^ mu sic, video recordings and ot h er art , w it h sh ort print ru ns, and in W est Africa 9^rican cudture bq and IP righ t s are w idely ignored. at leakt Zenefit froe ktate kmZkidiek& :mt P oor access t o cu lt u ral life also fu els t h e t h e appet it e for informat ion is st rong suhhortin_ artistsÌ informal cu lt u ral economy . A low level and reading h ab it s deeply ingrained: e\ucation in 9^rica& of eq u ipment ( int ernet penet rat ion in on average, each copy is read b y S u b - S ah aran Africa is at 1 6 . 9 % , among 8 t o 1 0 people. Oe oere influence\ t h e low est levels in t h e w orld) , a lack In addit ion, African cou nt ries are too euc` bq t`e of cu lt u ral infrast ru ct u re ( most African leahfro__in_ to eoZile%firkt tec`nolo_y$ cinemas closed more t h an t w o decades offering many opport u nit ies for CCI in t h e Oest$ esheciaddq bq ago) as w ell as poor legal dist rib u t ion video, gaming and mu sic indu st ry . 9eerican artists&Ê net w ork s ( t h ere are h ardly any legal E j emen O j eabulu Founder, AUCA | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries /)

9 ^ast%_rooin_ Õde t y pically h ave ab ou t 2 5 produ ct ion Y et , t h e employ ment pot ent ial of t h e in\ustrq companies each . B u t t h e b ig st ories in cu lt u ral sect or remains largely u nt apped. 9frican file are t`e rike of Follyoood Africa h as plent ifu l ent repreneu rial F ilm produ ct ion and view ing h ave grow n in Angloph one N igeria, w h ich is now energy and t alent , b u t needs t o rapidly over t h e past 1 0 y ears, and are reck oned t o direct ly employ 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 overcome t h e h andicaps of poor driving employ ment grow t h in t h e CCI. people ( see focu s on N igeria) , and t h e infrast ru ct u re, relat ively small and A decade ago, t elenovelas from Lat in eeer_ence of a dynaeic file indmktry impoverish ed mark et s, and t h e lack of America w ere common T V fodder. B u t in S ou t h Africa. F avored b y good t raining and t ech nical facilit ies. H ow ever, African view ers h ave increasingly b een infrast ru ct u re and a dry climat e, Cape as b roadcast ing and t h e int ernet demanding local cont ent , inspiring t h e T ow n h as b ecome a preferred locat ion develop, t h e advert ising indu st ry rides development of local series produ ct ion. for sh oot ing commercials and movies, on t h eir coat t ails. and h as acq u ired a repu t at ion for sou nd T oday , F rancoph one African cou nt ries t ech nical sk ills, fu nding and eq u ipment . su ch as Cô t e d’ Ivoire and S enegal Hrenieo Mneiuade\ ahhetite Doo costs an\ s`are\ eit`er ori_inal or eodified content$ are ^or cudturad _oo\s an\ nadues \rine cross%bor\er view ed avidly in E ast and Cent ral Africa. M eanw h ile, t h ey h ave b ecome so popu lar sernices econoeies in F rancoph one W est Africa t h at t h e Africans are increasingly consuming N olly w ood T V ch annel now commands Cultural content is increasingly being t h e region’ s b iggest au dience. culture, be it ultra-local, national, sold across African frontiers. African foreign or digital. Lib eraliz at ion of T V , movie and mu sic produ cers realiz e African cultural content is also t h e au diovisu al sect or in many M iddle t h at t o offset produ ct ion cost s in a price- increasingly being exported E ast ern and African cou nt ries in t h e sensit ive mark et , t h eir b est st rat egy is t o internationally t h ank s t o b ot h local and early 2 0 1 0 s — enab ling t h e int rodu ct ion max imiz e au diences b y cat ering t o pan- glob al play ers. Local T V ch annels are of privat ely - ow ned radio st at ions African t ast es and selling across b orders. st art ing t o t h ink glob al. R T I, t h e main and T V ch annels — and t h e arrival of Fi_erian filek and koah oherak$ oit` T V ch annel in Cô t e d’ Ivoire, h as set u p video and mu sic digit al plat forms h ave aided more b roadcast ing of local and Dial- up : number of smartp hones connections in A frica ( in millions) foreign cu lt u ral cont ent across t h e region. T elecoms infrast ru ct u re, t h e 1 , 1 5 2 1 , 2 1 3 cornerst one of t h e digit al t ransit ion, is 1 , 0 8 6 also improving fast . T h ou gh int ernet 1 , 0 1 2 availab ilit y is poor in mu ch of Africa and 9 3 1 u naffordab le for many , su b marine cab les 8 3 9 and ph one relay s are, at last , providing 7 4 2 t h e commu nicat ions b ack b one t o link Africa t o t h e int ernet . T h is development w ill su rely prove t ransformat ional for CCI 4 1 2 across t h e cont inent . 3 3 4 The appetite for culture will strengthen 2 0 4 2 6 4 fast as a y ou ng popu lat ion acq u ires 1 1 2 1 5 4 b u dget smart ph ones and t ab let s. T h e 7 9 t ot al popu lat ion, ab ou t 1 . 1 b illion t oday , 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 5 2 0 1 6 2 0 1 7 2 0 1 8 is ex pect ed t o grow b y 4 0 0 million over t h e nex t t w o decades, providing an army S mart ph ones All mob ile of k een cu lt u ral consu mers. S ou rce: Informa t elecoms & media | /* Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

produ ct ion and dist rib u t ion arms w it h 9^rica starts a creatine É 9 eaboritq o^ a view t o produ cing, dist rib u t ing and in\ustriad renodution _onerneents use\ to promot ing b et t er q u alit y drama ab road. Int ernat ional media grou ps are also African governments earlier paid little consi\er cudture as seek ing t o increase t h e visib ilit y and attention to CCI, eit h er du e t o lack `obbies3 t`eq are noo ex port s of African cu lt u re. In 2 0 1 4 , of u nderst anding of t h eir economic F rance’ s Canal+ lau nch ed a 1 0 0 % African impact or b ecau se governance and ret`inkin_ it as an T V ch annel, A+ , now b roadcast in economies w ere t oo w eak t o su pport more t h an 2 0 African cou nt ries, w h ile t h em. However, they are increasingly in\ustrq t`at can `ane Lagardè re Act ive R adio Int ernat ional recognizing the value of cultural si_niÕcant iehacts on h as lau nch ed t h e V ib e radio st at ion development. N igeria’s G overnment now in S enegal. kmhhortk itk file indmktry$ reco_nirin_ t`eir econoeq&Ê it s ab ilit y t o creat e j ob s, ex port earnings É Oit` t`e 9rab and t ax revenu es. T h e N at ional F ilm and V ideo Censors B oard is proact ive in Cultural policies expert, Mozambique Khrin_$ LN re_aine\ indu st ry development , and h as ex panded an essentiad rode it s role from cont ent regu lat ion t o T o t h rive, h ow ever, African creat ive indu st ry advocacy . indu st ries w ill h ave t o sh ift from t h e o^ coeeunication T h ere is st ill a lot t o do. T h e ch allenge free%to%amdience eodel and find oayk an\ in^oreation in is t o mak e CCI more st ru ct u red and t o rew ard creat ors. T h is w ill req u ire t h e formal t o increase int ernat ional visib ilit y development of new b u siness models, Nort` 9^rica& Oe adso and ex port s of African cu lt u ral cont ent . new at t it u des t o int ellect u al propert y , sao t`e eeer_ence D espit e government su pport , N olly w ood and effect ive copy righ t prot ect ion. `ak no official inktitmtional hrekence o^ narious hirate ou t side N igeria, and is missed b y c`anneds oit` eore many su rvey s of int ernat ional cinema produ ct ion. According t o U N E S CO in it s ^ree\oe o^ sheec`&Ê 2 0 1 3 Creat ive E conomy report , b ecau se Fi_eriaÌk file indmktry ik not hlm__ed into t h e int ernat ional fest ival and sales circu it , A bbas A zzouzi itk hrodmctk reeain difficmlt to acimire ou t side Africa, t h ou gh some can now b e Director of Medi1TV, Morocco fou nd online. | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 7 3

F ocu s from . . . Ni_eria N ollywood: a thriving movie p roduction industry “ N ollywood, ” an imp ortant force in ab ou t N igerians, according t o W IP O . T h e Keq Õ_ures N igeria’ s economic growth mark et is ex panding as t h e popu larit y of L`e file hrodmction indmktry in Fi_eria$ t`e filek khreadk acrokk 9frica$ fmlfillin_ commonly k now n as “ N olly w ood, ” demand from African T V st at ions is a vit al cont rib u t or t o t h e N igerian and au diences for relevant , low - cost 2 % economy : entertaineent& Fi_erian file hrodmction contribute\ to Ni_eriaÌs serves an au dience t h irst y for love, ?

N igeria’ s music industry: the most mature in A frica N igerian music climax ing N igerian music industry set to hit a Keq Õ_ure O ver t h e last 5 and1 0 y ears, t h ere h as high note b een incredib le grow t h in t h e ou t pu t B ey ond a t h riving and diverse local mu sic of “ N aij a” mu sic, made in N igeria. T h e scene, advances in mob ile t ech nology U S $ 1 5 0 m indu st ry produ ces over 5 5 0 alb u ms mean t h at digit al and int ernat ional o^ dine eusic renenues annu ally , and record sales h ave more recorded mu sic companies can now t`an trihled in t`e hakt five yeark& Koee effect ively reach a h u ge sw at h e of ex pect t h at t h e cou nt ry ’ s ent ert ainment consu mers across N igeria. N igeria indu st ry w ill ach ieve sales of U S $ 1 b a already h as a domest ic digit al mu sic É Len qears a_o$ oe \i\ not y ear b y 2 0 1 6 . b u siness, w it h st rong part nersh ips `ane anq eusic! in\ustrq3 N igeria also h as one of t h e most dy namic w it h leading regional and nat ional live mu sic scenes in Africa. G lob al annu al t elecommu nicat ions operat ors ( su ch as oe \i\ not `ane anq N igerian live performance revenu es M T N N igeria) . Int ernat ional services su ch suhhort& Oe \i\ not enen ex ceed U S $ 1 0 0 m, reinforced b y a as D eez er, iT u nes, S h az am, S imfy and `ane anq recor\ dabeds& grow ing live mu sic scene — especially via Y ou T u b e are now operat ing in N igeria. t h e M u sic Lagos F est ival. T h e Kdeek, a st reaming service developed 9n\ because oe bediene\ b y U niversal M u sic and S amsu ng, w as in oursednes an\ oe N igerian mu sic clearly dominat es Africa. lau nch ed in Angola, G h ana, K eny a, bediene\ in o`at oe `a\$ In 2 0 1 5 , N igerian art ist s maint ained N igeria and S ou t h Africa in early 2 0 1 3 . oe continue\& 9n\ noo t h eir su periorit y at t h e M T V Africa M u sic T h ere are also local services su ch as Aw ards, not ab ly w it h D avido’ s emergence S pinlet and iR ok ing. t`e eusic in\ustrq is t`e as t h e B est M ale Art ist and Y emi Alade as bi__est exhort ^roe 9^rica B est F emale Art ist . a^ter oid an\ _as&Ê Nigerian singer and songwriter | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries /-

=_qht F ilms in E gyp t: a traditional industry in transition “ T he H ollywood of the O rient, ” =_yhtÌk Öomrik`in_ file indmktry ik Zaked R evenu es fell aft er t h e revolu t ion on a p ast golden age in Cairo, w h ich h ost s a w orld- class annu al 2 5 J anu ary 2 0 1 1 , compou nded b y F rom t h e 1 9 4 0 s t o t h e 1 9 6 0 s, E gy pt Int ernat ional F ilm F est ival — t h e oldest redmced deeand for =_yhtian filek enj oy ed a t h riving cinema indu st ry . in t h e M iddle E ast — lau nch ed in 1 9 7 6 . aZroad ak MK and Andian filek fomnd Anternationally kmccekkfml filek of t`e Koee filek `ave kmccekkfmlly ac`ieved more favor w it h au diences. E gy pt ian 1 9 5 0 s, inclu ding mu sicals and comedies, b ot h crit ical acclaim and popu lar appeal, filek often ktrm__le to cover t`eir b ecame classics, t h eir st ars screen su ch as S ah ar el Daqadi ( S leepless coktk froe Zop office receihtk$ hmk`in_ legends and t h eir produ cers ( su ch N igh t s) in 2 0 0 3 and Aearat Qacoubian hrodmcerk tooard loo%Zmd_et filek t`at as Y ou ssef Ch ah ine) int ernat ionally ( T h e Y acou b ian B u ilding) in 2 0 0 6 . appeal t o a mass au dience. acclaieed& Koee =_yhtian filek of t`e W it h 2 5 movies produ ced in 2 0 1 3 , E gy pt T h e E gy pt ian movie indu st ry ’ s prob lems 1 9 6 0 s, su ch as El Hara’ or Shay men el reeaink t`e lar_ekt file hrodmcin_ comntry inclu de piracy b y sat ellit e ch annels and Khauf’ remain w idely revered. in Africa and t h e M iddle E ast aft er N igeria. file oeZkitek$ and t`e ktateÌk lacc of =_yht oent on to Zecoee t`e fileeacin_ Y et , t h e nu mb er of produ ct ions h as b een su pport for t h e indu st ry . In t h is climat e, cent er for t h e Arab w orld, produ cing declining since 2 0 1 0 . cinema h as b ecome dependent on t h e aZomt ,( filek a year and coeeandin_ effort s of invest ors, w h o h ave su cceeded an 8 5 % sh are in it s domest ic mark et E gyp tian cinema in crisis in hrodmcin_ `i_`%Zmd_et filek kmc` ak in 2 0 0 8 . M ore t h an 7 5 % of t h e 4 , 0 0 0 =_yhtian file omthmt `ak Zeen adverkely H ani K h alifa’ s Sahar al-Layali ( 2 0 0 3 ) . k`ort and featmre%len_t` filek eade in affect ed b y ch anging polit ical and Arab ic- speak ing cou nt ries since 1 9 8 0 economic u ph eavals in t h e Arab w orld. are E gy pt ian. Dgcal `ejges2 fmebej g^ ^ealmje files hjg\mce\ bq selecle\ A^jicaf cgmfljies ( 2 0 0 9 - 1 3 ) 5 0 4 5 4 3 4 0 3 5 3 3 3 0 2 5 2 5 2 3 2 5 2 2 2 4 2 5 2 0 1 9 1 9 1 6 1 7 1 5 1 7 1 8 1 0 1 3 9 8 5 7 1 4 0 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 E gy pt S ou t h Africa M orocco T u nisia S ou rce: E u ropean Au diovisu al O b servat ory | 7 6 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

V isual arts: a cultural heritage to p reserve A frica’ s visual arts champ ion U S $ 3 2 6 m revenu es. T h ree y ears earlier, u ses it s pu b lic art inst it u t ions t o promot e struggles to sustain momentum U N E S CO h ad designat ed t h e cit y of an ancient art form and encou rage amid p olitical up heaval 9koan itk firkt ;ity of ;raftk and >olc 9rt& mu seu ms. T h is is aimed at h elping local E gy pt is h ome t o a w orld- renow ned and K now n as “ S w no” ( t h e mark et ) b y t h e people ach ieve su st ainab le development , diverke cmltmral `erita_e& At `ak five Zi_ P h araoh s, Asw an h as preserved a u niq u e emtmal mnderktandin_$ and fi_`t hoverty mu seu ms: t h e Cairo M u seu m, w h ich h erit age in folk art , w h ile evolving int o a and illit eracy . ex h ib it s over 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 art ifact s from cont emporary h u b of ex q u isit e craft w ork , ancient E gy pt ; t h e M u seu m of Islamic art s edu cat ion, creat ive ex ch ange Crisis and p olitical instability induces Art ; t h e Alex andria N at ional M u seu m; t h e and civil engagement . S t anding at t h e a downward trend Lu x or M u seu m; and t h e N u b ia M u seu m. j u nct ion of t h e nort h ern and sou t h ern S ince t h e E gy pt ian u prising in 2 0 1 1 , It also h as a remark ab le 1 5 0 mu seu ms of part s of t h e N ile V alley , Asw an comb ines visit or nu mb ers h ave fallen sh arply : t h e modern art . Comb ined w it h a not ew ort h y t`eir inÖmencek into a mniime tradition N u b ia M u seu m h ad only 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 visit ors h erit age of monu ment s, t h e cou nt ry h as of N u b ian art t h at melds E gy pt ian and in 2 0 1 4 . T h e Int ernat ional Cou ncil of a b ig pu ll for t ou rist s: in 2 0 1 0 , t h e N u b ia S u danese cu lt u res. M u seu ms ( ICO M ) h as b een follow ing M u seu m alone at t ract ed a record one Invit ing art ist s from all over t h e w orld, event s in E gy pt closely . In 2 0 1 1 , ICO M million visit ors. Asw an h ost s an Int ernat ional S y mposiu m pu b lish ed an E mergency R ed List of In 2 0 0 8 , E gy pt w as among t h e t op for S cu lpt u re t o su st ain a scu lpt u ral E gy pt ian Cu lt u ral O b j ect s at R isk t o 1 0 ex port ers of art and craft s among t radit ion dat ing b ack t o nearly 5 , 0 0 0 raise pu b lic aw areness ab ou t t h e illicit developing economies, generat ing y ears. B y emph asiz ing it s past and trafficcin_ of cmltmral oZbectk& w ork ing t o improve it s present , t h e t ow n | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 7 7

Kout` 9^rica V isual arts: toward democratization Growing sup p ort for the visual arts ex t ended t o J oh annesb u rg. T h e event Keq Õ_ures T h ere is st rong w illingness t o su pport t h e provides a free cu lt u ral ex perience in art s in S ou t h Africa. T h ere are spaces for w h ich art galleries and ot h er cu lt u ral art ist s t o ex h ib it t h eir w ork s, as w ell as attractionk ktay ohen late on t`e firkt several non- government al organiz at ions T h u rsday of every mont h , lu ring y ou nger U S $ 1 6 . 5 m ( N G O s) and inst it u t ions su pport ing and au diences. annuad turnoner _enerate\ bq fu nding t h e art s, inclu ding t h e V isu al A n ap p ealing art market nisuad arts in *()(3 Art s N et w ork of S ou t h Africa, t h e S ou t h African N at ional Associat ion for t h e Cont emporary art from S ou t h Africa 7 , 7 0 0 V isu al Art s, and t h e Art s & Cu lt u re T ru st . is gaining grow ing at t ent ion in t h e heohde oorke\ in t`e nisuad S ou t h Africa’ s G overnment su pport s t h e int ernat ional cont emporary art mark et . arts sector in *()( art s t h rou gh it s N at ional Art s Cou ncil. T h e F N B J ob u rgArt F air in J oh annesb u rg, T h e cou ncil is responsib le for developing w h ich t h e cont inent ’ s leading African S ou t h Africa’ s creat ive indu st ry b y and diaspora cont emporary art fair, and aw arding grant s t o individu als and t h e more recent ly - lau nch ed Cape T ow n organiz at ions in t h e art s, t h ou gh demand art event , T h at Art F air, w h ich seek s t o ex ceeds t h e availab le b u dget s. nu rt u re and invest in emerging t alent , are E vent s int ended t o mak e visu al art s increasingly gaining w orldw ide renow n. availab le t o all inclu de F irst T h u rsday s, lau nch ed in Cape T ow n in 2 0 1 2 and T he enthroned radio industry R adio in S ou t h Africa h as grow n driven, t h ey h elp develop cu lt u ral É At oidd take a don_ tiee t remendou sly : revenu es rose 5 0 % diversit y . Ab ou t 2 4 0 commu nit y st at ions be^ore ra\io _ets anq b et w een 2 0 0 9 and 2 0 1 3 . W h et h er operat e in S ou t h Africa, b roadcast ing pu b lic, commercial, or commu nit y - ru n, new s, int erview s or ch ildren’ s programs, cdose coehetitors&Ê radio st at ions are list ened t o every w h ere and produ cing cont ent t h at may b e and any t ime, capt u ring a large au dience: pick ed u p b y ot h er media. 8 7 % of S ou t h Africans list en t o radio. Z u lu is t h e most u sed langu age on S ou t h J ohannes Dire, According t o t h e S ou t h African R esearch African radio st at ions, at t ract ing more F ou ndat ion, S ou t h Africans spent an t h an seven million list eners, follow ed b y National Secretary at National average of 3 . 5 h ou rs a day list ening t o Afrik aans and X h osa, w it h more t h an Community Radio Forum, South Africa radio in 2 0 1 4 . fou r million list eners each . B roadcast s R adio is the most accessed form are made in each of S ou t h Africa’ s of media in S outh A frica, reaching )) official lan_ma_ek& beyond urban centers T h e spread of smart ph ones h as B lending ent ert ainment and informat ion, encou raged, not u ndermined, radio radio st at ions encou rage dialogu e, list ening: 2 8 % of S ou t h Africans list en t o deb at e, popu lar part icipat ion and radio on t h eir ph ones. T h at crossover, involvement in decision- mak ing, even in comb ined w it h t h e popu larit y of t h e poorest and most remot e ru ral areas. commu nit y st at ions, h as h elped revenu e grow t h from radio advert ising ou t pace Commu nit y st at ions are especially rat es at ot h er media. popu lar. S mall, local and commu nit y - | 7 8 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

| Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries 79

Ei\\de =ast T V market is ready to ex p and T he M iddle E ast T V market, with q u adru pled from 1 . 3 3 million in 2 0 0 4 and O S N are forming a virt u al du opoly in more than 4 0 0 million inhabitants, is t o 4 . 3 5 million in 2 0 1 3 , increasing at an M E N A’ s sat ellit e pay - T V mark et . T h e t w o p articularly large and attractive for annu al average rat e of 1 4 . 6 4 % . T h e G u lf companies h ave managed t o at t ract t h e broadcasters and advertisers S t at es ( S au di Arab ia, t h e U AE , K u w ait , vast b u lk of sat ellit e su b scrib ers. S ince T h e st rong popu lat ion increase and Q at ar, O man and B ah rain) accou nt for 2 0 0 9 , t h eir comb ined mark et sh are h as cont inu ed economic development t w o ou t of t h ree pay - T V h ou seh olds Ömctmated Zetoeen 0* and 0-& provide pot ent grow t h perspect ives. ( 6 6 % of t h e t ot al) . H ow ever, t h ere are According t o an IH S report , t h e demand ki_nificant dikharitiek in t`e mhtace of A l J azeera conq uering the world for and consu mpt ion of T V b roadcast ing pay - T V services across t h e region: U AE Init ially lau nch ed as an Arab ic new s ik ki_nificantly ktron_er t`an in eokt h as t h e h igh est penet rat ion rat e at 8 5 % and cu rrent affairs sat ellit e T V ch annel, developed cou nt ries. T o respond t o t h is and E gy pt t h e low est at j u st 2 . 4 % . Al J az eera h as since ex panded int o ent icing consu mer T V demand, t h e H D channels offered in the M iddle a net w ork w it h more t h an one st ring M iddle E ast T V sect or h as b een lit erally E ast and N orth A frica ex p erienced t o t h eir b ow , inclu ding t h e int ernet b u rgeoning, as sh ow n b y t h e grow t h ex p losive growth and specialt y T V ch annels in mu lt iple in advert ising spend in t h e Arab region lan_ma_ek& 9l Bareera epeehlifiek t`e ( almost 4 . 5 % b et w een 2 0 1 2 and 2 0 1 5 ) . H D ch annels offered in t h e region grew grow ing at t ent ion t h e M iddle E ast T V from j u st t w o in 2 0 0 9 t o 1 5 8 in 2 0 1 4 ; indu st ry is receiving t oday . In 2 0 1 5 , T he p ay- T V market has q uadrup led in 7 1 of t h ese, arou nd 4 5 % of t h e t ot al Al J az eera is reach ing more t h an 2 7 0 j ust 1 0 years offer, are b eing provided for free. T h e million h ou seh olds in more t h an 1 4 0 free H D offering in M E N A is h igh er cou nt ries across t h e glob e. In 2 0 1 3 , t h e pay - T V mark et grew 1 1 . 2 % t h an t h e t ot al H D offering in cou nt ries in t erms of mark et sh are and 1 4 . 1 % in su ch as It aly , S pain, R u ssia, Au st ralia t erms of su b scrib er nu mb ers. O ver t h e and S ou t h Africa. B eIN S port s Arab ia last decade ( 2 0 0 4 t o 2 0 1 3 ) , t h e nu mb er ( formerly k now n as Al J az eera S port s) of primary pay - T V su b scrib ers almost Growth in advertising sp end and real GDP growth in A rab region ( 2 0 1 0 - 1 5 ) 1 0 % 7 . 1 % 6 . 5 % 8 . 5 % 5 . 3 % 4 . 0 % 5 . 0 % 5 % 4 . 9 % 4 . 8 % 4 . 5 % 4 . 8 % 3 . 5 % 0 % 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 5 - 5 % - 1 0 % - 1 0 . 3 % - 1 5 % R eal G D P grow t h Advert ising spend grow t h ( Y - o- Y ) S ou rce: Arab M edia O u t look 2 0 1 1 - 2 0 1 5 | 0( Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

N ew center of gravity for the visual arts In the M iddle E ast, the ex hibition 1 7 % of t h e regional t ot al. Iran h ost s t h e T h e Lou vre Ab u D h ab i w ill b e one of industry continues to grow largest nu mb er of event s in one cou nt ry , t h e most emb lemat ic mu seu ms in t h e In a su rvey b y U F I, t h e G lob al Associat ion w elcoming 2 1 9 event s in six cit ies. Iraq Arab w orld. T h u s, alt h ou gh t h e great est of t h e E x h ib it ion Indu st ry , 8 0 % of h as sh ow n a reasonab le comeb ack , mu seu m — Le Lou vre — is in P aris t oday , organiz at ions in t h e region remain and K u w ait and S au di Arab ia h ave also t h e fu t u re cu lt u ral dy namic force of t h e opt imist ic ab ou t t h e ex h ib it ion indu st ry ’ s w it nessed good grow t h . As b u siness cont emporary w orld is locat ed in t h e promising fu t u re, despit e t h e glob al cent ers, Ab u D h ab i and D oh a h ave M iddle E ast . economic dow nt u rn in 2 0 0 8 and t h e increased t h eir ex h ib it ion nu mb ers b y M oreover, D u b ai plans t o invest U S $ 1 3 6 inst ab ilit y of t h e Arab spring in 2 0 1 1 . 2 3 0 % since 2 0 0 6 . million in t h e “ M u seu m of t h e F u t u re, ” a According t o t h e U F I, since 2 0 0 6 , t h ere In an attemp t to become a t ech nological mu seu m t h at w ill produ ce h as b een a 1 4 % increase in t h e nu mb er of worldwide tourist destination, the fu t u rist ic invent ions w it h advanced 3 D t rade fairs organiz ed and a 2 1 % increase M iddle E ast is heavily investing in print ing const ru ct ion t ech niq u es, set t o in availab le ex h ib it ion space. large museums open for t h e pu b lic in 2 0 1 7 . According T h e U AE now provides t h e largest indoor t o S h eik h M oh ammed, vice president and ex h ib it ion space, represent ing 3 1 % of T h e Lou vre Ab u D h ab i is u ndou b t edly ru ler of D u b ai, t h e mu seu m “ w ill b e an t h e regional t ot al. D u b ai remains t h e t h e b est ex ample. D esigned b y J ean incu b at or for ideas and real designs” and regional h u b , w it h t h e great est nu mb er N ou vel and b orn of an int ergovernment al w ill cont rib u t e t o U AE ’ s mission t o b e a of event s h ost ed in one cit y ( 1 0 4 ) and agreement b et w een t h e U AE and glob al innovat ion cent er. t h e largest indoor ex h ib it ion space: F rance, t h e mu seu m w ill open in 2 0 1 6 . | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 0)

f a s o orld e w : challengeativ e e cr Outlookmor | 82 Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries

L`e c`adden_e o^ _root` Cu lt u ral and creat ive indu st ries are E Y ’ s 2 0 1 5 M edia & E nt ert ainment Capit al against a b ack grou nd of w eak glob al oft en ex t remely fragment ed, t h ou gh ;onfidence :aroeeter k`ook t`at ;;A economic grow t h and disru pt ion of t h ey may b e dominat ed b y a few large companies’ appet it e for M & A h as risen b u siness models b y digit al t ech nologies. play ers. As companies ch ase t h e scale t o a fou r- y ear h igh in t h is sect or: 5 0 % of H ow ever, compet it ion for asset s, needed t o ex ploit t h eir b est cont ent ideas ex ecu t ives ex pect t o pu rsu e acq u isit ions comb ined w it h relat ively h igh valu at ions, across glob al mark et s, consolidat ion is in t h e nex t 1 2 mont h s. T h is is b eing mak es it h ard t o close deals. b ack in vogu e. driven part ly b y effort s t o renew grow t h Do you ex p ect your comp any to actively p ursue acq uisitions in the nex t É>ertide ecosqstees 1 2 months? eust be create\ 5 0 % to `edh ;;A flouris`3 in harticudar$ 4 0 % bq coor\inatin_ 3 4 % bot` hubdic an\ 2 5 % hrinate actors&Ê 2 3 % A strid A udibert Team leader — Technical assistance at Apr- 1 3 O ct - 1 3 Apr- 1 4 O ct - 1 4 Apr- 1 5 ACP Cultures+ Programme S ou rce: Media & Entertainment Capital Confidence Barometer, E Y , M ay 2 0 1 5 G aining mark et sh are and prot ect ing W hat are the main drivers imp acting your M & A strategy over the revenu es are seen as t h e b iggest drivers nex t 1 2 months? of ex pansion moves b y CCI companies. F aced w it h int ensify ing compet it ion and G ain mark et sh are in ex ist ing 4 3 % digit al disru pt ion, t h ey need t o gain scale geograph ical mark et s and operat ional leverage. Leverage regu lat ory / legislat ive opport u nit ies 4 3 % At t h e ot h er end of t h e spect ru m, grow t h in small cu lt u ral and creat ive companies Aehrove ktrmctmral tap efficienciek 2 9 % k`omld Ze Zookted Zy neo financin_ t ools. Crow dfu nding creat es a mark et for M ove int o new geograph ical mark et s 2 6 % financin_ ideak$ and ik increakin_ly mked Zy Zmd_et fileeacerk$ artiktk and amt`ork Acq u ire t alent 2 3 % to finance hrobectk t`at ei_`t ktrm__le t o secu re b ank loans. T h ose seek ing t o M ove int o new produ ct / services areas 1 1 % finance eoviek and ot`er crokk%Zorder creat ive proj ect s are also t u rning t o co- Access new t ech nology / int ellect u al propert y 9 % produ ct ion. R ecru it ing foreign part ners not only h elps sh are cost s, b u t also t o R edu ce cost s, improve margins 3 % secu re larger mark et s for creat ive w ork s. It is proving a part icu larly effect ive t ool S ou rce: Media & Entertainment Capital Confidence Barometer, E Y , M ay 2 0 1 5 for sh aring risk and enh ancing revenu es in t`e file and LN indmktriek& | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 8 3

L`e c`adden_e o^ _dobadiration Invest ment dest inat ions span developed rero to five$ oit` five Zein_ t`e eokt lack dist rib u t ion infrast ru ct u re, can b e mark et s and t op- t ier emerging mark et s. at t ract ive. ki_nificant& ;`inaÌk rektrictive cahk on W h en ch oosing w h ere t o invest , creat ive W e learned from D iM Ax t h at mat u re foreign part icipat ion, and India’ s low and cu lt u ral companies need t o b ot h mark et s remain t h e most at t ract ive for hricek and Öed_lin_ di_ital conkmehtion$ ant icipat e t h e rew ards and appreciat e t h e invest ment , and t h at in t erms of capit al limit t h eir at t ract iveness and grow t h risk s. U nderst anding w h ich mark et s t o deploy ed, t h e U S , U K , t h e N et h erlands possib ilit ies in t h e near t erm. T h ese focu s on, w h en t o ent er and h ow t o ent er and Au st ralia look set t o lead developed difficmltiek are coehomnded Zy Zakic is essent ial for su ccess. mark et grow t h in 2 0 1 5 . T h is view w as h andicaps ranging from b u reau cracy t o T o h elp cu lt u ral services companies w it h confireed Zy rekhondentk to omr E= u nreliab le pow er su pplies and sh ort ages t h eir int ernat ional and emerging mark et su rvey . of sk illed t alent . As a resu lt , cross- b order grow t h st rat egies, E Y h as developed capit al commit ment s b y creat ive and t h e D igit al M edia At t ract iveness Index , N onet h eless, Ch ina and India remain cu lt u ral invest ors int o emerging mark et s or D iM Ax — a propriet ary t ool t h at rank s emerging mark et s of ch oice for many are lik ely t o remain cau t iou s and modest cou nt ries on t h eir relat ive pot ent ial t o ex ecu t ives, draw n primarily b y st rong in scale over t h e nex t 1 2 mont h s. generat e earnings from digit al media. grow t h and massive long- t erm pot ent ial. L`e tool ik ktrmctmred ak a cokt%Zenefit H ow ever, t h e cost s of ent ering and analy sis and scores cou nt ries from developing t h ese mark et s, w h ich oft en O`ic` aje l`e lgh fine \eslifaligfs qgmj cgehafq is egsl licelq lg ifnesl if l`e fepl )* egfl`s7 T o p M edia and E ntertainm ent destinatio ns U nited S tates U nited K ing do m N eth erlands Ch ina A ustralia S ou rce: Media & Entertainment Capital Confidence Barometer, E Y , M ay 2 0 1 5 | 0, Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

L`e c`adden_e o^ ondine eonetiration O`en di_ital content firkt ei_rated vigorou sly fou gh t t o ensu re view ers T h e research sh ow s not iceab le disparit y online, many creat ive companies cont inu e t o pay for t h eir creat ive w ork s. b et w een free and t ransact ional online made t h e st rat egic decision t o mak e P roviding h igh - q u alit y , valu e- added b eh aviors. O f cou rse, in most cou nt ries, mu ch , if not all, of t h eir cont ent free t o cont ent w ill b e crit ical t o persu ading people lik e free online cont ent . T h e graph conkmeerk& Eany noo face t`e difficmlty online view ers t o pay for w h at t h ey b elow sh ow s t h e average penet rat ion of t ry ing t o persu ade consu mers t o pay w at ch or list en t o. Creat ive and cu lt u ral levels of free online act ivit ies — su ch as for somet h ing t h ey h ave h it h ert o b een companies need t o b et t er u nderst and reading new s, gaming, w at ch ing videos, accessing for free. Consu mer resist ance t h e fact ors t h at det ermine consu mers’ accessing social net w ork s and b logging — is st rong. N ew spapers and radio oft en w illingness — or relu ct ance — t o pay for in each of t h e cou nt ries st u died. offered free online cont ent , w rongly online cont ent . P enet rat ion levels varied from 7 0 % in b elieving t h at advert ising revenu e S ou t h K orea t o 4 3 % in J apan. T h e U S oomld Zecoee kmfficient to cover neok% =Q `ak ktmdied t`e online and ofÖine h ad an average penet rat ion rat e of 5 7 % gat h ering cost s. S imilarly , mu sic sit es media h ab it s of consu mers in 1 2 cou nt ries and w as t h e only non- emerging cou nt ry oft en made recordings availab le for free, arou nd t h e w orld t o b et t er predict w h ere aeon_ t`e toh five& in a move designed t o t ak e t h e w ind paid cont ent st rat egies are more lik ely t o ou t of pirat es’ sails. B u t ot h er cont ent su cceed and w h ere t h ey are not . providers, inclu ding moviemak ers, h ave A verage p enetration free online activities 8 0 % 7 0 % 7 0 % 6 1 % 6 0 % 6 0 % 5 7 % 5 6 % 5 5 % 5 2 % 5 1 % 5 0 % 4 9 % 4 8 % 4 5 % 4 3 % 4 0 % 3 0 % 2 0 % 1 0 % 0 % S ou t h Ch ina India U S B raz il It aly S pain F rance R u ssia G ermany U K J apan K orea S ou rce: Monetizing digital media, E Y , 2 0 1 0 In a recent N ielsen su rvey , 8 5 % of t o pay for cert ain cat egories of cu lt u ral int ernet u sers said t h at online cont ent cont ent , inclu ding movies, games, T V t h at is cu rrent ly free sh ou ld remain free. sh ow s and mu sic, and less lik ely t o pay B u t , u nsu rprisingly , t h e su rvey fou nd for new s, b logs and u ser- creat ed videos. online consu mers may b e more w illing | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 0-

L`e c`adden_e o^ nurturin_ tadent T alent is t h e lifeb lood of t h e CCI. innovat ion and spin- off companies, É Lo\aq$ t`e ^ocad Ach ieving art ist ic ex cellence oft en t ak es u niversit ies are oft en pioneers in hoint o^ t`e _aein_ ex t raordinary dedicat ion, prolonged h ard t ech nological innovat ion. w ork and int elligence. B u t it can also • Ladent2 U niversit ies h ave an import ant in\ustries is t`e req u ire a great deal of learning, and t h e role in at t ract ing, developing and ri_`t o^ in\ehen\ent ab ilit y t o cross- fert iliz e ideas from t h e ret aining t alent . F or t h emselves, t h ey past w it h new t ech niq u es, t ech nologies seek t o at t ract t h e b est st u dent s \enedohers to create and memes. and post - gradu at e research ers. B y an\ coeeerciadire In a 2 0 0 6 paper, The University and collab orat ing w it h companies, t h ey the Creative Economy$ R ich ard F lorida, can h elp add valu e and at t ract creat ive neo _aees& An G ary G at es, B rian K nu dsen and K evin indu st ries. B u t t h ey also play a more ^act$ oit` t`e S t olarick su ggest ed t h at u niversit ies act su b t le role, h elping b u ild au diences of as engines of innovat ion, b u t t h at t h eir a kmfficient kire to kmhhort artiktk and \eeocratiration o^ role is really rat h er w ider. T h ey argu ed grou ps pu rsu ing creat ive endeavors. tec`nodo_q$ enerqone t h at u niversit ies oft en act as creat ive • Loderance2 T h ou gh t h is q u alit y h u b s for t h e economic, social and cu lt u ral appears increasingly u nder t h reat can \enedoh a ni\eo development of t h eir h ome cit ies and from t h e minorit ies det ermined _aee& At can be regions. T h e au t h ors focu sed on t h e role t o impose t h eir view s on ot h ers, of u niversit ies in st imu lat ing a “ spillover” u niversit ies cont inu e t o h elp spread herceine\ as a t`reat of t ech nology , t alent and t olerance, new ideas t o neigh b oring regions. ^or tra\itionad actors t h ereb y aiding t h e development of CCI. B y at t ract ing st u dent s from diverse but it is adso an According t o t h e prominent professor b ack grou nds, t h ey b ring in new E . G laeser, R ich ard F lorida’ s Rise of the ideas and promot e t h eir ex ch ange, ohhortunitq to boost Creative Class4 resu mes t h e import ance w h ile seek ing t o cu lt ivat e freedom innonation&Ê of cit ies at t ract ing h u man capit al: “ t h e of ex pression. N orms and valu es u rb an lesson of F lorida’ s b ook is t h at su ch as t h ese h elp creat e an cit ies t h at w ant t o su cceed mu st aim at environment t h at appeals t o t alent ed, at t ract ing t h e creat ive t y pes w h o are t h e creat ive people, t h ereb y at t ract ing K ate E dwards, w ave of t h e fu t u re. ” F lorida’ s w ork is b u ilt individu als w h o are innovat ive Executive Director of the International arou nd it s “ 3 T s t h eory ” ( t ech nology , and ent repreneu rial, and w h o w ill Gaming Developers Association t alent and t olerance) , t h e t h ree driving cont rib u t e t o economic grow t h . forces of regional and local economic H ow ever, t o h ave t h e desired effect , development . u niversit ies and ot h er h igh er edu cat ion • Lec`nodo_q2 B ecau se u niversit ies inst it u t ions mu st b e w ell- int egrat ed int o receive pu b lic and privat e fu nding for t h eir h ost regions: t h ey are an import ant research , and are oft en sou rces of ingredient of creat ive grow t h . 4 The Rise of the creative class, R ich ard F lorida, 2 0 0 2 | 8 6 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

E ducating for creative growth Contestability of markets and funding Drivers of Democratization of knowledge • F iercely compet it ive domest ic and change and access int ernat ional st u dent mark et s • U b iq u it ou s cont ent • Ch allenges t o government fu nding • B roadening of access t o • Compet ing for new sou rces of fu nds h igh er edu cat ion • Increased part icipat ion in emerging mark et s Global mobility • E merging mark et s b ecoming glob al- scale Digital technologies compet it ors in t h e int ernat ional st u dent mark et • B ringing t h e u niversit y t o t h e device — M assive • Academic t alent increasingly sou rced from open online cou rse and t h e rise of online emerging mark et s Integration with industry learning • E mergence of elit e, t ru ly glob al u niversit y • S cale and dept h of indu st ry - b ased • B ringing t h e device t o t h e u niversit y — t h e u se b rands learning of digit al t ech nologies in campu s- b ased learning • R esearch part nersh ips and • B lended learning commercializ at ion • Indu st ry as compet it ors in t h e certification and delivery of content S ou rce: University of the future, E Y 2 0 1 2 | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 8 7

L`e c`adden_e o^ aut`orÌs ri_`t hrotection an\ suhhort T h e creat ive indu st ries mak e a u niq u e prot ect ion for int ellect u al propert y in É At oidd be a don_ uh`idd cont rib u t ion t o t h e economic and cu lt u ral Ch ina. T h is w as essent ial, said t h e du o, stru__de to ensure t`e w ell- b eing of nat ions and individu als. “ if t h e nat ion w ant s t o creat e more of At t h e h eart of t h ese indu st ries — w h ich it s ow n online cont ent . ” T h ey added: re_udation o^ cudturad generat e U S $ 2 , 2 5 0 b of revenu es and “ Improving copy righ t prot ect ion w ill h elp _oo\s an\ t`e `edh o^ creat e 2 9 million j ob s — are t h e creat ors. Ch inese companies develop a mat u re As cont ent increasingly moves online, b u siness model for videos, mu sic and t`e hubdic sector to t h e not ion of “ free access” is spreading, animat ion. ” suhhort neo tadents hroeoted Zy t`oke o`o Zenefit W h at is t ru e for Ch ina is t ru e for t h e rest commercially from providing free access. of t h e w orld, t oo. P roper prot ect ion for docaddq&Ê B u t for au t h ors and creat ors t o cont inu e creat ive cont ent is needed every w h ere. creat ing cu lt u re and promot ing cu lt u ral Collect ive management of righ t s is a diversit y , t h ey mu st b e compensat ed sy st em t h at allow s creat ors t o devot e Artist, Ivory Coast fairly for t h e u se of t h eir w ork s. t ime t o creat ion, w it h t h e gu arant ee t h at O t h erw ise, creat ing w ill again b ecome a even t h e most modest u se of t h eir w ork leisu re act ivit y rest rict ed t o t h ose w h o w ill b e t rack ed and fairly remu nerat ed. already h ave t h e means t o h ou se and O n t op of t h is general recommendat ion, feed t h eir families. it ik clear t`at keveral khecific initiativek “ F air u se” is not fair t o t h e creat ors if are needed t o b et t er prot ect au t h ors’ t h ey are not get t ing paid for t h is u se. ri_`tk& An t`e emkic field$ t`e >air Lrade “ F air” means t h at creat ors sh ou ld b e M u sic init iat ive is look ing at b ringing paid — fairly — for t h eir w ork . Creat ors many digit al services t o t h e t ab le, t o depend on b eing paid in order t o mak e ident ify and agree “ fair t rade” condit ions a living. W h en ot h er people go t o w ork , for creat ors. T h e visu al art s sect or is creat ors go t o t h e colors and canvas; b u ilding a coalit ion of creat ors arou nd t h e t o t h e pen and paper; t o t h e recording w orld t o su pport t h e art ist resale righ t ktmdio3 to t`e file ket or to yet anot`er and lob b y for an int ernat ional t reat y . F or demanding, ex h au st ing, and even painfu l au diovisu al, a proj ect t h at look s at t h e reh earsal in search of performance inalienab le righ t of remu nerat ion h as j u st perfect ion. If t h ey cannot get paid for b een lau nch ed, w h ich w ou ld h ave maj or doing w h at t h ey do, t h ey w ill h ave t o do rehercmkkionk for creatork in t`e field$ somet h ing else inst ead of creat ing — and especially in cou nt ries w h ere no su ch all of societ y w ill lose. righ t is recogniz ed. If art ist s st op creat ing, w h at w ill b e t h e T h e “ U niversal D eclarat ion of H u man w ort h of free cont ent ? Any one can see R igh t s, ” adopt ed b y t h e U nit ed N at ions’ t h e difference b et w een q u alit y j ou rnalism G eneral Assemb ly in 1 9 4 8 , st at es t h at b y t rained and rigorou s minds, and “ E very one h as t h e righ t t o t h e prot ect ion t h e freely aired viru lence of cou nt less of t h e moral and mat erial int erest s b loggers. T h ose w h o w ant free access rekmltin_ froe any kcientific$ literary or and t h ose w h o mak e money from art ist ic produ ct ion of w h ich h e is t h e providing free access are free- riders on au t h or. ” T oday , t h at is far from b eing t h e t h e effort of t h ose w h ose cont ent t h ey case. T h e failu re t o ach ieve it is limit ing access or give aw ay . T oday , w e h ave revenu es of t h e CCI, and t h erefore reach ed a crit ical sit u at ion. U nless it is h olding b ack t h eir grow t h and ab ilit y pu t righ t , creat ivit y it self is in danger. t o h ire. T w o of Ch ina’ s most prominent creat ive and cu lt u ral ent repreneu rs, J ack M a, t h e b illionaire fou nder of Alib ab a, and P ony M a, t h e ow ner of T encent , w h ich operat es social net w ork s and w eb port als, last y ear pleaded for st ronger | 8 8 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

L`e c`adden_e o^ neo business eo\eds @qbri\iration o^ are t h e revenu e sou rces. S ome CCI is st ill predominant , cont rib u t ing almost econoeic eo\eds sect ors are really h y b rid — it means 9 7 % of t ot al revenu es. diverkified È kmc` ak _aein_ oit` kip M oreover, h y b ridiz at ion is u ndou b t edly T oday , in a period of rapid ch ange, economic models fu nct ioning in parallel link ed t o digit aliz at ion: if a sect or is t h e CCI are facing a ph enomenon of ( ph y sical or digit al pay ment , su b script ion, digit iz ed, t h en it is also h y b rid, as sh ow n “ economic models’ h y b ridiz at ion, ” free- t o- play inclu ding P ay miu m, b elow . H ow ever, t h e mu sic indu st ry is w h ich ent ails t h e mu lt iplicit y of fu nding advert ising and micropay ment ) . an ex cept ion. and revenme komrcek& Oit`in a khecific O n t h e cont rary , t h e b ook indu st ry cmltmral kector$ t`e eore diverkified present s, w it h an index of 2 3 , a very low economic models are, t h e more varied h y b ridiz at ion. In fact , t radit ional pay ment V ideo games M usic M ovies B ooks Digitalization rate 7 2 % 5 0 % 3 0 % 1 5 % H ybridization index 8 0 4 1 5 6 2 3 S ou rce: K u rt S almon, 2 0 1 5 T h ere is no dou b t t h at every cu lt u ral E volution of the digitalization rate between 2 0 1 0 and 2 0 1 8 indu st ry is impact ed b y digit aliz at ion. 9 0 % F or inst ance, t h e movie indu st ry , w it h a 1 5 % digit aliz at ion rat e in 2 0 1 0 , w ill 8 0 % ex perience digit aliz at ion at 5 3 % in 2 0 1 8 . Also, t h ere is no argu ment ab ou t t h e 7 0 % import ance of digit aliz at ion for cu lt u ral 6 0 % act ivit ies. O ne w ay of ident ify ing t h e effect s of digit aliz at ion is t o k eep in mind 5 0 % t h at it radically ch anges dist rib u t ion cost s and, b y redu cing t h em, mak es it 4 0 % possib le t o reach a su b st ant ially larger 3 0 % nu mb er of pot ent ial consu mers. O n t h e cont ent delivery side, t h e cont rib u t ion 2 0 % of compu t ers and t elecommu nicat ions indu st ries, t oget h er w it h t h e spread of 1 0 % digit al t ech nologies, h as enab led new 0 % economies of scope and int egrat ion 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 8 t h at ch ange t h e economics of cont ent dist rib u t ion. M u sic M ovies V ideo games B ook s T o conclu de, once it is cou pled w it h S ou rce: University of the future, E Y 2 0 1 2 digit aliz ed sect ors, t h e h y b ridiz at ion mech anism is posit ive and creat es valu e. Neo econoeq$ neo rudes )& L`e É^ree custoeerÊ2 no \i^^erence +& L`e Éhirate eana_eeentÊ2 Cou pled w it h h y b ridiz at ion, new st rat egies betoeen a haqin_ an\ a re\eÕnin_ execution emerge w it h t h e t riu mph of G oogle, Apple, non%haqin_ one Creat ing an innovat ion- friendly F aceb ook and Amaz on. In fact , t h e fu t u re E very one is a cu st omer, even w it h ou t environment t o su perch arge of every company seems t o follow t h e w ay money ; in fact , t h e cu st omer b ase is performance and pioneer t h e fu t u re, t h ese fou r evolve. F u ndament al st rat egic essent ial for all grow t h . ensu ring freedom of t h ou gh t , creat ion st eps h ave led t h em t o mak e decisions *& L`e Éutiditq nadue eo\ed2Ê t`inkin_ and act ion w it h no apparent economic sense, b u t in teres o^ custoeer coeeiteent w h ich h ave cont rib u t ed t o developing rat`er t`an Õnanciads t h eir posit ion as t h e w orld’ s largest valu e D elivering su st ainab le cu st omer valu e providers. T h ese inclu de: hrevailk over k`ort%tere hrofitaZility& | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 8 9

e e ativ e s at a glanc al and crtrie ur ult C indus | 90 Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries

S ales J obs K ey trends ( U S $ b) ( million) T V 4 7 7 3 . 5 L eaders — revenues: N orth A merica ( 3 8 % ) ; j obs: A sia ( 5 5 % ) • T V is t h e most lu crat ive sect or and w ill cont inu e t o b e so: t h e glob al b roadcast ing and cab le T V mark et is forecast t o grow 2 4 . 3 % b et w een 2 0 1 3 and 2 0 1 8 . • In emerging cou nt ries, digit al t errest rial T V and pay - T V su b script ions are b ooming, e. g. , D irecT V Lat in America saw a 1 5 % increase in sat ellit e su b scrib ers b et w een 2 0 1 2 and 2 0 1 3 . • In mat u re cou nt ries, w eb T V and digit al T V cont ent are increasingly popu lar; new pay - T V b u siness models are emerging. Nisuad arts 3 9 1 6 . 7 L eaders — revenues: A sia ( 4 9 % ) ; j obs: A sia ( 4 9 % ) • L`e vikmal artk È inclmdin_ varied activitiek È are t`e firkt eehloyerk in t`e CCI glob ally . • T h e glob al art mark et is b ooming: it reach ed a t ot al of j u st over € 5 1 b illion in 2 0 1 4 , an increase of 7 % y ear- on- y ear and it s h igh est - ever recorded level. T h e dist rib u t ion of sales b y valu e in t h e glob al art mark et is dominat ed b y t h e U S ( 3 9 % ) , Ch ina ( 2 2 % ) and t h e U K ( 2 2 % ) . • S imu lt aneou sly , mu seu ms are mu sh rooming, especially in emerging cou nt ries, creatin_ neo conkmeer epheriencek and enaZlin_ neo oayk to create fine artk& Neoshahers 3 5 4 2 . 9 L eaders — revenues: A sia ( 4 0 % ) ; j obs: A sia ( 5 7 % ) an\ ea_arines • In mat u re cou nt ries, t h e sect or is ex periencing st ru ct u ral decline, and a sh ift t o online edit ions, e. g. , The New York Times report ed an average w eek day print circu lat ion of less t h an 6 5 0 , 0 0 0 in S ept emb er 2 0 1 4 , b u t it s w eb sit e and associat ed apps at t ract ed nearly 5 4 million u niq u e visit ors in J anu ary 2 0 1 5 . H ow ever, t h e digit al revenu es do not compensat e for t h e losses of print t oday . • In emerging cou nt ries, print new spapers is b ooming. Ch ina and India comb ined w ill accou nt for an ast onish ing 5 7 . 3 % of glob al average daily u nit print circu lat ion in 2 0 1 9 , u p from 4 9 . 7 % in 2 0 1 4 . • T ot al magaz ines revenu es w ill remain on an u pw ard cu rve t o 2 0 1 9 , driven b y a 1 . 5 % grow t h in t rade magaz ine revenu e. 9\nertisin_ 2 8 5 2 . 0 L eaders — revenues: E U ( 5 0 % ) ; j obs: E U ( 5 0 % ) • Advert ising is especially import ant ; it is feeding t h e ot h er CCI ( new spapers and magaz ines, radio, T V , et c. ) , and glob al advert ising revenu es w ill increase U S $ 3 0 0 million b et w een 2 0 1 0 and 2 0 1 9 . • P rint ads h ave fallen off and ad spending is moving t o digit al. D igit al advert ising w ill b ecome t h e largest advert ising segment in 2 0 1 9 . T h e rapid grow t h ( 2 3 . 1 % ) of mob ile int ernet advert ising revenu es means t h at it w ill overt ak e display b y t h e end of t h e forecast period. • In emerging cou nt ries, advert ising in general is b ooming, e. g. , Lat in America h olds t h e same nu mb er of advert ising j ob s as N ort h America. T h e rising mark et s are forecast t o cont rib u t e 6 2 % of addit ional ad ex pendit u res b et w een 2 0 1 2 and 2 0 1 5 , increasing t h eir sh are of t h e glob al mark et t o 3 7 % . | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 1)

S ales J obs K ey trends ( U S $ b) ( million) 9rc`itecture 2 2 2 1 . 7 L eaders — revenues: A sia ( 5 3 % ) ; j obs: E U ( 3 9 % ) • In emerging cou nt ries, t h e demand for arch it ect u re is rising. Ch ina, India and B raz il offer t h e b est grow t h pot ent ial for arch it ect u ral services. • D riven b y t h e demograph ic b oom, Ch ina remains t h e w orld’ s largest conktrmction earcet kince *()(& L`e 9kia%Hacific earcet ik ephected to Ze t`e largest b y 2 0 2 0 , w it h a proj ect ed valu e of U S $ 4 . 6 t rillion. • Alt h ou gh t h e demand is clearly locat ed in emerging cou nt ries, W est ern arc`itectk continme to doeinate t`e earcet2 t`e t`ree lar_ekt arc`itectmre firek are all N ort h American: Aecom ( U S ) , G ensler ( U S ) and IB G rou p ( Canada) . :ooks 1 4 3 3 . 7 L eaders — revenues: E U ( 3 7 % ) ; j obs: A sia ( 4 6 % ) • P rint is alive and w ell: in 2 0 1 5 , print w ill represent 8 0 % of all b ook sales w orldw ide, and even h igh er in developing cou nt ries. • T ot al glob al b ook s revenu e is set t o rise t o U S $ 1 2 8 b in 2 0 1 9 , from U S $ 1 2 0 b in 2 0 1 4 . G row t h w ill b e driven b y India, w h ich b ecame t h e 1 0 t h - largest b ook mark et in 2 0 1 4 and w ill see t h e fast est grow t h glob ally in t ot al b ook s revenu e. • T h e grow t h of edu cat ional b ook s w ill ou t pace consu mer and professional b ook s revenu es: b et w een 2 0 1 4 and 2 0 1 9 , t ot al glob al edu cat ional b ook s revenu e w ill grow 2 % , ex ceeding t h e 0 . 8 % for consu mer b ook s revenu e and 1 . 6 % for professional b ook s revenu e. Her^orein_ 1 2 7 3 . 5 L eaders — revenues: U S ( 4 9 % ) ; j obs: A sia ( 3 8 % ) arts • T h e performing art s mark et is st ill dominat ed b y w est ern cou nt ries, mainly t h e U S and E u rope. • L`e _loZal Zop office ik _rooin_$ notaZly oit` t`e earcetiration of t`e performing art s in some emerging cou nt ries. H ow ever, t h e sect or is clearly dominat ed b y t h e informal economy in some regions, not ab ly in Africa. • F est ivals are an increasing asset for cu lt u ral t ou rism w orldw ide. ?aein_ 9 9 0 . 6 L eaders — revenues: A sia ( 4 7 % ) ; j obs: A sia ( 4 2 % ) • O nline and mob ile video games w ill const it u t e 8 6 % of t h e consu mer video games mark et in 2 0 1 8 . In fact , glob al smart ph one connect ions are forecast t o nearly dou b le t o 3 . 8 5 b b y 2 0 1 9 . • T h e emergence of a new class of independent developers is renew ing t h e video game indu st ry . • ;lomd _aein_ oill Zecoee an increakin_ly ahhlicaZle hrohokition2 t`e nept five y ears w ill see vast increases in device connect ivit y . | 1* Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

S ales J obs K ey trends ( U S $ b) ( million) Eonies 7 7 2 . 5 L eaders — revenues: U S ( 3 7 % ) ; j obs: E U , A sia ( 3 1 % ) • L`e _loZal Zop office _reo ) in *()+$ driven hriearily Zy 9kia )*!& ;ineea screens increased b y 6 % w orldw ide in 2 0 1 4 . • Compet it ion is int ensify ing b et w een w est ern and emerging cou nt ries. Harticmlarly ktron_ _root` of fileed entertaineent revenmek oill Ze keen b et w een 2 0 1 4 and 2 0 1 9 : 1 4 . 5 % in Ch ina, 6 % in B raz il and 1 1 % in Argent ina. T h e glob al leader — t h e U S — w it h 3 3 % of t h e t ot al mark et in 2 0 1 4 , w ill see ab ove- average grow t h of 5 % . • Feo di_ital diktriZmtion eodelk are ahhearin_ aromnd t`e oorld$ kmc` ak FetÖip in t h e U S and iR O K O t v. com in Africa. Eusic 6 5 4 . 0 L eaders — revenues: U S ( 3 6 % ) ; j obs: A sia ( 3 3 % ) • In t erms of employ ment , t h e mu sic sect or is t h e second CCI aft er visu al art s. M u sic is st ill a large part of millennials’ b u dget : U S $ 1 2 5 in 2 0 1 5 in N ort h America. • G lob ally , live mu sic is t h riving: 8 0 % of millennials in N ort h America w ill at t end a live event in 2 0 1 5 . • M u sic h as b ecome digit al and mob ile ( st reaming, dow nloads, et c. ) At t h e end of 2 0 1 4 , t h e nu mb er of cou nt ries in w h ich t ot al digit al recorded mu sic ex ceeded h`ykical recorded emkic revenme ktood at **3 in *()1$ t`at fi_mre oill `ave risen t o 4 0 . G lob ally , consu mer spending on digit al format s and services w ill overt ak e ph y sical in 2 0 1 5 . T h is sit u at ion raises t h e issu es of digit al revenu es’ monet iz at ion, as w ell as t h e cont rol of piracy and illegal sales. Ja\io 4 6 0 . 5 L eaders — revenues: U S ( 4 5 % ) ; j obs: A sia ( 3 5 % ) • G lob ally a popu lar mediu m, radio is h ere t o st ay . R adio advert ising revenu es w ill ex t end it s sh are of t ot al glob al radio revenu e from 7 5 . 3 % in 2 0 1 4 t o 7 5 . 8 % in 2 0 1 9 . • T h e U S dominat es t h e glob al radio mark et , w it h 4 6 % of all revenu e. H ow ever, grow t h is now occu rring more q u ick ly in ot h er mark et s. • In emerging cou nt ries, non- t radit ional models su ch as commu nit y radios prosper, especially in Africa, e. g. , ab ou t 2 4 0 commu nit y st at ions operat e in S ou t h Africa. S mall, local and commu nit y - driven, t h ey h elp develop cu lt u ral diversit y , b roadcast new s, spread mu sic and produ ce cont ent . | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 9 3

y e ativ e ommunit c om the s s fr al and crtrie e ur oic ult V c indus | 94 Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries

An\ex T h e follow ing pages consist s of int erview s t h at w ere condu ct ed for t h is st u dy 9 6 | N iniola A llan A zeezat, songw rit er and performer, N igeria 9 6 | Carlinhos B rown, mu sician, singer, songw rit er, B raz il 9 7 | Daniel B urman, F ilm direct or, Argent ina 9 7 | Giora Chamizer, T V creat or, Israel 9 8 | V ince Degiorgio, songw rit er, Canada 9 8 | K laus Doldinger, composer, G ermany 9 9 | N guizani Domingos, ch oreograph er, Angola 9 9 | A chille F orler, M D at U niversal M u sic P u b lish ing, India 1 0 1 | Christian F urr, visu al art ist , U nit ed K ingdom 1 0 2 | P eter Gabriel, mu sician, singer- songw rit er, lab el ow ner, fest ival promot er and O D 2 co- fou nder, U nit ed K ingdom 1 0 3 | P rof. Dieter Gorny, E x ecu t ive B oard Ch airman of t h e G erman F ederal M u sic Indu st ry Associat ion ( B V M I) , professor at D ü sseldorf U niversit y of Applied S ciences, D irect or of t h e E u ropean Cent re for Creat ive E conomy ( E CCE ) , and G erman F ederal M inist ry of E conomic Affairs’ Commissioner for t h e Creat ive and D igit al E conomy 1 0 4 | B ouzaglo H aim, direct or, w rit er and produ cer, Israel 1 0 4 | A nsomwin Ignace H ien, novelist , poet and b ook pu b lish er, B u rk ina F aso 1 0 5 | David H irschfelder, emkician$ file kcore coehoker$ 9mktralia 1 0 6 | W illem J eths, mu sic composer, N et h erlands 1 0 6 | Cé cile K ayirebwa, singer and songw rit er, R w anda 1 0 7 | Calvin K irimba, T V produ cer and h ip- h op art ist , K eny a 1 0 7 | H artwig M asuch, CE O at B M G , G ermany 1 0 8 | V asyl N evolov, w rit er, play w righ t , U k raine 1 0 8 | Carmine P erna, managing direct or, M ondadori F rance 1 0 9 | L aurent P etitgirard, mu sic composer and condu ct or, F rance 1 0 9 | J an S ardi, screenw rit er, Au st ralia 1 1 0 | S oro S olo, cu lt u ral j ou rnalist and radio produ cer, P aris, F rance 1 1 1 | Isao T omita, creat or and mu sician, J apan 1 1 2 | F ernando T rueba, file director$ Khain 1 1 2 | A ndrzej W aj da, file director$ Holand | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 1-

L`e eusic in\ustrq a\\s nadue to t`e Ni_erian econoeq N iniola A llan A zeezat, songw rit er and performer, N igeria T h is is a great t ime for N igerian mu sic, Alongside leading art ist s, t h ere are j ob s P osit ively , b ecau se w e can easily record o`ic` ik findin_ a _loZal amdience& L`ik for b ack u p singers, inst ru ment alist s, ou r voices and forw ard t o a produ cer reÖectk t`e creative drive of omr comntry$ dancers, ch oreograph ers, pu b licist s, t h rou gh emails and ot h er plat forms. A especially from t h e y ou t h . Almost st y list s, event decorat ors . . . produ cer can also send b eat / inst ru ct ion every w h ere y ou t u rn t h ere’ s an u pcoming T h e mu sic indu st ry is creat ing seriou s t h rou gh email, and so on. art ist . Almost every family in N igeria, employ ment opport u nit ies, servicing N egat ively , as ou r mu sic is b eing easily especially in t h e cit ies, h ave an art ist in different indu st ries. In sh ort , t h e N igerian pirat ed and sold online. T h is deprives t h eir folds. mu sic indu st ry h as added great er valu e creat ors from t h eir righ t fu l remu nerat ion W h at t h is h as done is giving t h e y ou t h s t o t h e N igerian economy . and w ou ld req u ire sw ift act ion from h ope. R egardless of t h e w oes of t h e In fu t u re, sale of mu sic on CD s w ill government s t o enforce ou r righ t s. cou nt ry , t h ey h ave h ope of a b righ t er day no longer ex ist . All mu sic w ill b e sold t h rou gh creat ivit y . t h rou gh mob ile ph ones, w eb sit es and T h e ot h er aspect is t h at it provides j ob s ot h er digit al means. D igit al t ech nologies t o y ou ng people in t h e creat ive sect or. h ave b ot h posit ively and negat ively inÖmenced omr art& ;udture is not ondq ^or entertaineent Carlinhos B rown, mu sician, singer, songw rit er, B raz il T o b e an art ist is part of my self. I’ m a t o develop new t ech nologies. B u t h e server of t h e art and t h e preservat ion needs also t o learn from t h e past b ecau se of t h e legacy of ou r ancest ors. It w as oit`omt t`ik fomndation oe oill find t h rou gh t h e “ t imb au ” 3 t h at I h ave ou rselves lost . A t ab let can’ t replace t h e discovered t h e w orld, and it w as t h e plow . I b elieve it is necessary t o reconcile, “ t imb au ” t h at t h ou gh t me t h e real t h e b est w ay possib le, t h e digit al w orld valu e of t h e environment w h ere I come w it h t h e analogic w orld. T h is is t h e great from. I h ave alw ay s h ad t h e dream of ch allenge in front of u s! Int ernet h elps overcoming t h e depreciat ory image of a lot t h e creat or t o b ring it s w ork t o t h e “ favela” and I made it . I’ ve st ru ggled; any cont inent , t o b e ack now ledged and I’ ve gone aft er part nersh ips and t oget h er recogniz ed and, ab ove all, t o b e ab le t o w it h t h e commu nit y of Candeal P eq u eno, research and t o learn ab ou t w h at h as in S alvador, w h ere I w as b orn, I’ ve b een produ ced all over t h e w orld. B u t managed t o reach on of t h e b est Index I do valu e t h e oral t radit ion, t h e face- t o- of H u man D evelopment in B ah ia. W e face cont act w it h my mast ers and w it h © Imas P ereiras h ave creat ed mu sic sch ools and regu lar people t h at admire my w ork . W e all h ave sch ools; w e’ ve offered h ou sing and a lot t o learn and w e sh ou ld do it t h rou gh b asic sanit at ion t o t h e inh ab it ant s of t h e t h e most different sou rces possib le. commu nit y . F rom t h ere great mu sicians W e sh all w ork t o b ring aw areness t h at came ou t and t h ey are play ing w it h great cu lt u re is not only for ent ert ainment , art ist s all over t h e w orld. I’ m very prou d for part y ing, b u t it is also preserving ou r of t h is ach ievement ! M u sic for me is a root s. W e h ave a lot t o learn w it h t h e very pow erfu l agent of social and cu lt u ral cu lt u ral diversit y t h at const it u t es t h e t ransformat ion. legacy given t o u s. A h u man b eing needs t o drive h imself t ow ards learning; a h u man b eing needs 3 T imb au is a percu ssion inst ru ment , t h e main inst ru ment u sed b y Carlinh os B row n. O u t from h is t imb au h e creat ed t h e famou s grou p” T imb alada” . | 9 6 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Lec`nodo_q `as becoee hart o^ cudturad content Daniel B urman, file director$ 9r_entina W e are facing a moment of a profou nd M edia t end t o b e confu sed w it h t h e paradigm sh ift . W e creat ors are get t ing art ist ic cont ent it display s. Creat ors closer t o consu mers; revenu es are losing mu st st op seeing t ech nology as a t h eir valu e along t h e ch ain. Art ist ic ch allenge: w e h ave t o st art incorporat ing cont ent is w h at h elps mak e a difference t ech nology in ou r creat ive processes. b et w een t h is confu sing maz e of display T ech nology needs t o st op b eing a w indow s. mere plat form or a means t o an end. T ech nology is no longer “ nice t o h ave” T ech nology is not a resu lt b u t a process. b u t h as b ecome part of t h e cont ent . © D aniel B u rman At is about _oo\ stories Giora Chamizer, T V creat or, Israel I h ave w ork ed as a T V creat or since every y ear new generat ion of view ers w h at drives k ids t o my sh ow s is t h eir 1 9 9 3 . O ver t h e last 1 0 y ears, I h ave b een b inge- w at ch t h em and k eep t h em “ alive. ” h u nger for a good st ory . As mu ch as t h ey t h e creat or and sh ow - ru nner of fou r T V B et w een seasons, t h e view ers k eep t h e love t h e st ars, for ex ample, t h ey are far series for k ids, in a genre t h at I b asically engagement on social media ou t let s more concerned w it h w h ich direct ion t h e invent ed: it is a daily drama w h ich lik e Inst agram w it h t h ou sands of fan plot may t ak e. And t h e st ory it self is t h e comb ines a t elenovela- lik e st ru ct u re, pages. F or me it provides a perfect w ay one const ant element t h at , in my view , is infu sed w it h h igh doses of su spense. T h e t o commu nicat e w it h my au dience on a immu ne t o ch ange. fou r sh ow s w ere all very su ccessfu l in daily b asis, get a sense of w h at t h ey lik e, Israel, reach ing h u ndreds of t h ou sands of w h at t h ey miss t h e most , w h at moves y ou ng people. t h em, and w h at t h ey ex pect t o see. T h e sh ow s h ave sh ow n a su rprising At t h e same t ime, aft er a decade of st ay ing pow er on V ideo on demand, and ex perience in t h is genre, I can say t h at | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 9 7

Kuhhortin_ creators in t`e \i_itad era V ince Degiorgio, songw rit er, Canada As t h e cu rat or of t h e S ongw ork s T h e S AC is u sing digit al t ech nologies w rit er camp program and Ch air of t h e t o creat e a plat form t h at w ill provide event s commit t ee for t h e S ongw rit ers ment oring, commu nicat ion and glob al Associat ion of Canada ( S AC) , t h e delivery of w ork from ou r memb ers, creat ive act ivit y t ak ing place at t h is u sing every t h ing from one- on- one video moment is incredib ly vit al t o t h e fu t u re ment oring t o song delivery and h elp w it h of Canadian songw rit ers. O u r event s and copy righ t prot ect ion t ech niq u es t h at programs h ave b ecome a h u b of act ivit y su pport creat ors. nat ionally for ou r memb ers and proj ect O u r ph ilosoph y is not t o fear t h e digit al part icipant s, giving t h em a lau nch pad for era, b u t t o drive a parallel road b eside emerging, est ab lish ed and even legacy it s const ant st at e of ch ange. T h e w ay s in level creat ors in ou r indu st ry . As an w h ich ou r messages w ill b e delivered in organiz at ion, w e are rising b ey ond t h e t h e fu t u re are forever ch anging. B u t all negat ive norms of t h e digit al age. st art w it h a song. © D enise G rant . 9 hroher reeuneration ^or aut`ors an\ artists is cruciad K laus Doldinger, composer, G ermany If w e gaz e b ack over t h e h ist ory of t h e su rvival and independence of t h ose mank ind and w onder w h ich valu es creat ing art and t h eir descendant s, and act u ally su rvived t h e u ps and dow ns of b y ex t ension of t h e art s t h emselves. t h at h ist ory , w e w ill inevit ab ly not ice T h e emergence of t h e digit al w orld t h at t h ey are t h e valu es of art creat ed alko Zrom_`t _reat Zenefitk to t`e artk b y individu als u sing w ords, mu sic in many areas, b u t t h ere are maj or and images. Invent ions lik e print ing, disadvant ages as w ell. recordin_$ file$ and eore$ caee aZomt T h e main ch allenge for t h e fu t u re w ill b ecau se people w ere int ent on preserving b e t h e need t o h armoniz e int ernat ional and ex panding t h ese valu es. T h is, in regu lat ions. Au t h ors and art ist s depend t u rn, at t ract ed more people t o new on proper remu nerat ion from t h e professions associat ed w it h t h e w orld of int ernet and from st reaming in part icu lar. t h e art s. T h e invent ors, t h e mu sicians, M aint aining ou r cu lt u re t h rou gh ou r t h e art ist s alw ay s remained a minorit y mu seu ms, t h eat res and sy mph ony compared w it h t h e h ost of individu als orch est ras is cru cial for ou r societ y . B y © F lorian J aennick e w h o st ood b y t h em and offered cru cial t h e same t ok en, preserving ou r valu es, su pport . T h e development of copy righ t , lik e copy righ t and su pport for coming as t h e core element of t h e preservat ion generat ions, is j u st as import ant . of righ t s, u lt imat ely led t o commensu rat e compensat ion for t h e u se of int ellect u al Lu ck ily , mu sic, and j az z especially , is so propert y . F u rt h ermore, t h is ensu red mu ch fu n du ring it s performance already . | 9 8 Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

;udture nee\s hubdic an\ hrinate innesteent N guizani Domingos, ch oreograph er, Angola 9rt definek t`e cmltmral identity of a t ech nologies can also h ave t h e sou rce T V programs, movies, videos and radio cou nt ry . Ch oreograph y u sed t o b e at of accu lt u rat ion and can damage or sh ow s t o serve nat ional needs b u t also t o t h e avant - garde of my cou nt ry ’ s cu lt u re, denat u re ou r cu lt u ral fab ric. b e ex port ed. ekhecially dmrin_ t`e firkt decade t`at Gmr firkt c`allen_e ik to defend omr Dakt$ creatork in all artiktic fieldk$ t`rom_` follow ed t h e independence. Lik e for ot h er cu lt u ral ident it y and su pport creat ors. ou r au t h ors’ societ y U N S C- S A ( N at ional art forms, t h ere w as a vib rant scene, Art ist s need su pport , b e it t h rou gh U nion of Art ist s and Composers- S ociet y b u t t h e lack of pu b lic policies t o su pport pu b lic policies, cu lt u ral pat ronage or of Au t h ors) sh ou ld b e ab le t o reap t h e t h e art w as det riment al t o many cu lt u ral legislat ion. W e need pu b lic and privat e rew ards for t h e u se of ou r w ork s. W e endeavors in Angola, and many art ist s in invest ment in edu cat ion, cu lt u ral cent ers, now h ave many reciprocal agreement s all disciplines ch ose t o leave t h e cou nt ry and concert venu es, and w e need new in place w it h sist er societ ies arou nd t h e t o b e ab le t o cont inu e t o w ork in t h e w ay s t o produ ce and dist rib u t e cu lt u ral w orld, and w e h ave j oined CIS AC, for t h e creat ive sect or. cont ent and t o ex port ou r cu lt u re and Zenefit of vikmal artiktk$ c`oreo_rah`erk$ T oday , y ou ng art ist s are ob viou sly t h e ou r art ist s. Creat ive indu st ries can play emkiciank$ fileeacerk and all t`e firkt to endorke neo di_ital tec`nolo_iek a maj or role in t h e development of ou r creat ors from Angola. and adapt t h em t o ou r realit y . T h ese cou nt ry , cont rib u t ing t o t h e creat ion of ;ontinuous iehroneeent in dicensin_ an\ coddectine eana_eeent o^ ri_`ts A chille F orler, M anaging D irect or at U niversal M u sic P u b lish ing, India A bout you: could you describe B ack in t h e early sevent ies, India’ s yourself ( your j ob/ p osition) and your S u preme Cou rt ru led t h at w h en au t h ors comp any/ organization? oorced for a file$ t`eir ktatmk oak t`at I am t h e fou nder of D eep E mot ions of “ h ired w ork ers. ” T h e produ cer w as, HmZlik`in_ <=H!$ AndiaÌk firkt emkic t`erefore$ t`e firkt ooner of literary and pu b lish ing company , fou nded in 1 9 9 5 . mu sical w ork s. In 2 0 1 2 , copy righ t law in T h e company w as acq u ired b y U niversal India t ook a new t u rn w h en b ot h H ou ses M u sic P u b lish ing ( U M P ) in D ecemb er of P arliament passed t h e Amendment s 2 0 1 2 , and I am now t h e M D of b ot h D E P in a landmark vot e of u nanimit y . It and U M P . cont ained t h ree import ant clau ses for au t h ors: au t h ors gained an u nw aivab le W hat are the p articular asp ects righ t t o roy alt ies eq u ivalent t o 5 0 % of all pu b lish ing income; collect ive licensing of of your industry ( music) in your lit erary and mu sical w ork s cou ld b e done country? only t h rou gh a societ y ; and all regist ered © Ch ant al F orler M ost of t h e mu sic in India is produ ced b y societ ies h ad t o re- apply for a license file hrodmcerk$ o`o t`en kell t`e Zmndled w it h in a y ear. “ mu sic righ t s” t o record lab els ( w h o H ow has your industry changed over w ere t h e t radit ional gat e- k eepers t o t h e the last few years? mark et in t h e age of ph y sical produ ct s) . Andia adohted itk firkt ;ohyri_`t 9ct in India is a u niq u e mark et , remark ab le in 1 9 5 7 , modeled on t h e B rit ish Copy righ t many w ay s. It rank s among t h e h andfu l Act , 1 9 5 6 . U nt il t h e early 1 9 7 0 s, H M V of cou nt ries t h at possess a pow erfu l ( now S aregama) h ad a monopoly over ent ert ainment indu st ry w it h crossover disc manu fact u ring, h ence t h e pract ice of reach : it s cu lt u ral produ ct s are pu rch ased “ b u ndled righ t s. ” b y consu mers from ot h er cu lt u res. | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries 9 9

T h e Indian ent ert ainment indu st ry is so ah ead of t h e U S . It is t h e second largest In your op inion, what is the future massively dominat ed b y B olly w ood and, u ser of G oogle S earch . O nline sh opping of emp loyment in your industry and to a lieited eptent$ Komt` Andian filek is ex pect ed t o ex ceed U S $ 1 0 0 b b y 2 0 1 9 region/ country? t h at any mu sic st rat egy t h at ignores or and online advert ising w ill cross U S $ 2 b I b elieve t h at t h e cu rrent siz e of t h e dikcomntk file emkic cannot Ze keriomk ( sou rce: eM ark et er) . It also h as a y ou ng mu sic indu st ry is grossly u ndervalu ed. and is dest ined t o remain nich e. T h e popu lat ion ( 6 3 % are b elow 2 5 ) . L`e fi_mrek hmZlik`ed in variomk rehortk mark et sh are for int ernat ional repert oire F u elled b y t h is ex plosive grow t h of mob ile are rest rict ed t o t h e t u rnover of t h e is in t h e single digit only . int ernet , India is w it nessing t h e ch u rning record lab els; t h ey do not t ak e int o B olly w ood is t h e k ey t o t h e Indian of commu nicat ions, ent ert ainment , accomnt t`e valme of emkic in filek$ ent ert ainment indu st ry . And mu sic mark et ing and t ech nology on a radio, t elevision, games, et c. S ome of is t h e k ey t o B olly w ood. T h e mu sic st u pendou s scale. t h e valu e at t rib u t ed t o t h ese indu st ries — indu st ry is massively dominat ed b y a w h ich are not pay ing roy alt ies, or very single company w h ose mark et sh are In your op inion, what would be the lit t le, t o collect ive righ t s organiz at ions — eq u als t h e comb ined sh are of t h e nex t key future trends in your region/ act u ally sh ou ld act u ally b e accou nt ed fou r lab els. S u ch u nb alance is t h e sign country? u nder “ mu sic. ” T h e sooner w e b ring of an immat u re mark et and t h erefore a F or over a decade, collect ive glob al st andards t o t h e mu sic indu st ry , promise of h igh pot ent ial for det ermined management organiz at ions ( CM O s) t h e fast er t h is indu st ry w ill grow and ch allengers. h ave h ad a st eep learning cu rve t o b e mu sic asset s at t rib u t ed t oday t o ot h er T elevision h as b ecome a € 2 b illion on par w it h t h e q u alit y st andards and indu st ries w ill b e accou nt ed as “ mu sic. ” indu st ry , w it h over 8 5 0 ch annels cat ering efficienciek of ;EGK in ot`er hartk of t o t h e H indi and E nglish speak ers as w ell t h e w orld. R ecent development s give me as t o t h e nu merou s regional langu ages. h ope t h at collect ive licensing w ill st art t o H ow imp ortant is digital technology look u p in 2 0 1 6 . I b elieve t h at an au t h ors in your activity? Do you see any societ y in India h as t h e pot ent ial t o b e among t h e t op 1 0 earners glob ally in t h e related challenges and issues in nex t decade. p articular? T h e cou nt ry w ill b ecome nex t y ear t h e second largest smart ph one mark et , | )(( Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

L`e eusic in\ustrq `as inte_rate\ t`e inner oorkin_s o^ t`e \i_itad econoeq into its

9 neo era ^or creators o^ content B ouzaglo H aim, direct or, w rit er and produ cer, Israel A orote and directed )* featmre filek$ doon t`e cokt of filein_& At c`an_ed t h e main condu it for b ig event s w it h eigh t T V series and one docu ment ary t h e discipline: w e h ave more freedom massive rat ings, b u t t h e individu als w ill and I also produ ced 1 6 of t h em, seven of in sh oot ing, w e can sh oot more scenes develoh t`eir oon liZrariek of filek and w h ich in coprodu ct ion w it h F rance, S pain w it h more t ak es. I t h ink digit al is one of series b ased on t h eir personal t ast es. and t`e MK& Koee of ey filek are hart of t`e reakonk of t`e kmccekk of Akraeli filek E ach spect at or w ill b e a programmer. hro_raek in file kc`oolk and mniverkitiek and T V programs in t h e w orld, b ecau se Creat ors w ill deliver t h e cont ent for t h ese w h ere my special w ay of direct ing is it allow ed for more t alent s t o ex press lib raries and t h e ch oice w ill b e left t o discu ssed. t h emselves. each individu al. And original cont ent w ill A k`ot all ey firkt eoviek in ). and +- W e are approach ing an era w h ere w h at b e t h e most import ant ingredient in t h e mm b u t t h e development of digit al is new and original w ill w in direct ly t h e new w orld of cinema and t elevision. eq u ipment made life easier and b rou gh t at t ent ion of t h e view ers. T V w ill remain Nationad hubdic hodicies o^ encoura_in_ diterarq creation are nee\e\ A nsomwin Ignace H ien, novelist , poet and b ook pu b lish er, B u rk ina F aso As an au t h or, I h ave w rit t en some of roy alt y collect ion and organiz e an 2 0 b ook s in genres as diverse as novels, effective fi_`t a_ainkt comnterfeitin_ novellas, poet ry and t ales for y ou ng net w ork s t o w eak en, if not eliminat e t h em. readers. I h ave also b een a pu b lish er, P iracy , w h ich u nt il now w as most ly a profession w h ich led me t o ch air t h e concent rat ed on mu sic, h as now invaded Associat ion of pu b lish ers from B u rk ina t`e literatmre field& L`ik `ak a devaktatin_ F aso ( AS S E D IF ) u nt il 2 0 1 0 . I w as involved effect on au t h ors and pu b lish ers, in `elhin_ define t`e hmZlic holiciek in t`e u ndermining w h at is already an b ook s’ pu b lish ing sect or in B u rk ina F aso emb ry onic indu st ry h ere. In addit ion, t h e b u t also in N iger, T ogo or D j ib ou t i. pu b lish ing sect or lack s invest ment and Cont rib u t ing t o CIS AC’ s w ork in Africa, needk accekk to financin_& Lo addrekk most not ab ly as an ex pert in au t h ors’ t h ese issu es, a nat ional pu b lic policy of and neigh b oring righ t s, I h ave measu red encou raging lit erary creat ion sh ou ld b e t`e need for action in 9frica in t`e field ab le t o galvaniz e creat ors. And w e also © All righ t s reserved of righ t s. T o address t h e issu e of low need an more effort s t o incit e y ou ng collect ions of roy alt ies in most African people t o read from a very early age. cou nt ries, CIS AC h as est ab lish ed very W e need t o nu rt u re t h e nex t generat ion u sefu l programs t o st rengt h en collect ive of readers b y produ cing and giving t h em management organiz at ions in t h e access t o a w ide range of b ook s. T h is cont inent , especially t h rou gh t raining st rat egy w ill creat e an au dience for b ook s sch emes. w h o w ill read lit erary w ork s in digit al or In B u rk ina F aso, w e are lu ck y t o h ave a t radit ional format . And since it is u su ally very dy namic collect ive management t h rou gh t h e passion for reading t h at organiz at ion w it h t h e B u reau b u rk inab é people st art w rit ing, let ’ s h ope t h at it w ill du droit d’ au t eu r/ B u rk inab é Copy righ t also t rigger t h e creat ive mu se among Gffice ::<9!$ Zmt a lot of oorc needk y ou ngst ers and b ring t o t h e fore a new to Ze done to ki_nificantly raike t`e level generat ion of creat ors. | )(, Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Aehrone\ coddectine eana_eeent is keq ^or \enedohin_ creation David H irschfelder, emkician$ file kcore coehoker$ 9mktralia In t h e 3 5 y ears, D avid h as b een involved T ognet t i and Lisa G errard, sh ow s t h e in t h e mu sic indu st ry b ot h in Au st ralia need for collab orat ion and sh ared and ab road. Copy righ t and roy alt y au t h orsh ip. h ave h ad a direct impact on h is income T h e advent of digit al t ech nologies h as st reams. Zeen ki_nificant for file coehokition E arly in h is career, D avid’ s role as and produ ct ion. Lik e most composers, t h e mu sical direct or and composer D avid b rings t h e new t ech nology t o h is for t`e )11. file Shine, b ased on w ork t h rou gh a digit al composing su it e t h e life of pianist D avid H elfgot t , w as y et h e ret ains h is passion for all t h ings simu lt aneou sly a crit ical and commercial classical, especially t h e u se of orch est ral su ccess and a copy righ t b at t legrou nd, inst ru ment s, as w ell as h is b eloved b ot h from h eirs t o t h e R ach maninov B ö sendorfer grand piano. T h e digit al age est at e t h rou gh a moral righ t s act ion and h as also b rou gh t it s sh are of ch allenges. D avid’ s ow n lit igat ion t o secu re roy alt y D avid lament s t h e democrat iz at ion of © T im J ones P h ot ograph y 2 0 1 4 pay ment s for sou ndt rack u nit s sold. emkic and file and t`e anonyeity _iven or epaehle$

;reatine sector isnÌt bust a earket W illem J eths, mu sic composer, N et h erlands T h e most b eau t ifu l sou nds in t h e w orld creat ion. T h ey also need st rong copy righ t do not consist of merely one simple law s t h at provide t h e creat ive commu nit y t one, an odd single sou nd or an isolat ed w it h t h e necessary and su st ainab le ch ord. T h e most b eau t ifu l sou nds are t h e fou ndat ions t o prot ect t h eir righ t s and ones t h at h ave not b een composed b y a earn fair remu nerat ion from t h eir w ork s. mu sician. T h e most b eau t ifu l sou nds do Copy righ t enab les t h em t o generat e not h ave copy righ t ; a k iss, a foot st ep on income w h ich mak es it possib le for t h em, t h e pavement of y ou r loved one coming and fu t u re generat ions, t o professionally h ome, t h e ru st ling of leaves in t h e t rees, cont rib u t e t o an act ive, cont inu ou sly t h e roar of t h e su rf. evolving cu lt u re and increased Composing is somet h ing complet ely employ ment . different . It is t h e sh aping, t h e creat ing of P olicy - mak ers sh ou ld encou rage t h e sou nd w it h t h e pu rpose of t elling a st ory : development of cu lt u re. N ot only b ecau se t h en, t h e mu sical craft sman w ill get t o it ensu res enrich ment , ch ange, relax at ion © F riso K eu ris w ork . H e w ill t u rn sou nd int o mu sic, b y and movement , b u t also b ecau se it polish ing, improving, slaving aw ay and creat es j ob s. Close t o 3 0 million people list ening t o it again and again. Aft er t h at , in t h e w orld w ork in t h e creat ive sect or. it can b e h eard b y any one, and every one W e ex pect policy - mak ers t o realiz e t h at can, and w ill, t h ink somet h ing of it . B u t t h e creat ive sect or isn’ t j u st a mark et t h ere are only few t h at act u ally mak e b u t deserves invest ment and needs t o money on it , or t ry t o. b e prot ect ed. B y doing so, t h ey w ill k eep Creat ors need freedom of cu lt u re, cu lt u re alive, serve t h e pu b lic int erest freedom of speech and freedom of and gu arant ee t h at creat ors can cont inu e t o mold sou nds, w ords or images. Kuhhortin_ creators in t`e \i_itad era Cé cile K ayirebwa, singer and songw rit er, R w anda T oday ’ s climat e is fu ll of h ope and in R w anda or if w e are st ill at t h e st age innovat ion. Art ist s are organiz ing of “ w ish fu l- t h ink ing. ” D oes t h e mu sic t h emselves, developers creat e plat forms produ ced in R w anda h ave t h e necessary for online sales/ dist rib u t ion, st reaming level t o compet e in t h e glob al mark et ? and applicat ions, and b ig t elecom D oes t h at “ pop sou nd” favored b y companies are collab orat ing w it h art ist s. y ou ng people b ear a u niq u e and original T h ere is an aw ak ening of R w anda’ s R w andan ident it y ? mu sic scene. T h is involves b u sinesses, R w anda sorely lack s lab els, digit al corporat ions, government agencies, dist rib u t ion net w ork s, people w it h real y ou ng ent repreneu rs, and media, and all k now ledge and ex perience, compet ent of t h is cau ses ex cit ement , a b u z z . W e can creat ors and b u sinesspersons w h o even ob serve a ph y sical manifest at ion on u nderst and t h e real issu es in order t h e net t h rou gh variou s art icles and ads t o cent er all t h is energy in t h e righ t on social media. direct ion. © R oger S angw a T h e q u est ion now is w h et h er t h is is a t ru e digit al revolu t ion t h at is t ak ing place | )(. Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Notoit`stan\in_ sociad an\ econoeic turbudences in Mkraine$ \raea creators keeh on contributin_ to t`eir cudturad sector V asyl N evolov, w rit er, play w righ t , U k raine U k rainian drama au t h ors are cu rrent ly of cu lt ivat ion play s an import ant role facin_ ki_nificant hroZleek& Lom_` in social and economic w ell- b eing of economic environment in U k raine t h e cou nt ry as t h e au t h ors raise spirit s inevit ab ly impact s an ab ilit y of t arget and direct pu b lic mood t o posit ive au dience t o pay forcing t h e t h eat res t o vect or. P rot ect ing t h e condit ions t h at k eep t h e cost of t h e t ick et s for t h eat rical w ill allow u s t o creat e is t h e k ey t o performances at minu scu le level. F or su st ainab le economic, social and cu lt u ral t h is very reason, U k rainian t h eat res are development . not aZle to increake Zop%office receihtk N ot w it h st anding social and economic depriving righ t h olders of dramat ic righ t s t u rb u lence in U k raine, drama creat ors of t h eir fair remu nerat ion. T h e sit u at ion k eep on developing and cont rib u t ing ik oorkened Zy inkmfficient ktate fmndin_ t o t h eir cu lt u ral sect or. I see more and of t h e cu lt u ral sect or. As a resu lt , most more U k rainian play w righ t s and direct ors of t h e st at e t h eat res oft en do not h ave mak ing int ernat ional career as nat ional fu nds t o mak e t imely roy alt y pay ment s. b ou ndaries erase. T h e informat ion Credit : V asy l N evolov T h e main prob lem also remains w eak is b eing spread inst ant ly , allow ing le_iklative fraeeoorc leadin_ to financial U k rainian creat ors t o b e u p t o dat e on inst ab ilit y of t h e creat ors. U nau t h oriz ed t h e w orld’ s lat est t rends in drama sect or u se of ou r w ork s b y t h eat res, int ernet and promot e U k rainian cu lt u re ab road. piracy and ot h er IP issu es sh all b e W e are also very h appy t o see grow ing u rgent ly addressed b y t h e government . nu mb er of int ernat ional t h eat rical W h en t h e st at e ignores t h e creat ive fest ivals t ak ing place in U k raine as w ell as indu st ry , it resu lt s in fru st rat ion and increasing nu mb er of w ork s of U k rainian vu lnerab ilit y of t h e au t h ors w h ich is drama au t h ors st aged at t h e t h eat res all det riment al t o creat ivit y . At t h e same over t h e w orld. t ime, I st rongly b elieve t h at overall level

9ut`orÌs ri_`ts are t`e return on creatine innesteent L aurent P etitgirard, mu sic composer and condu ct or, F rance As a composer, my professional life relies ensu res fairness and su st ains repert oires on a favorab le environment for creat ion. t h at are more fragile, less ex posed. As Au t h ors and composers, lik e me, are creat ors, w e are st rongly at t ach ed t o t h is in a posit ion t h at can b e and oft en is collect ive model for t w o main reasons: precariou s: t h e ret u rn on invest ment on firkt$ Zecamke it _ivek mk È individmal t h e t ime spent creat ing is u ncert ain and creat ors — “ st rengt h in nu mb er” in at b est middle t erm, especially in t h e order t o get proper remu nerat ion for cont emporary mu sic w orld. T o collect t h e ou r w ork s; and second b ecau se w e are fru it of ou r lab or w e h ave t o rely on many t h e decision- mak ers in ou r CM O s. At actork in t`e creative c`ain È firkt of all$ S acem for inst ance, t h e B oard — made ou r pu b lish ers, b u t also record produ cers u p of creat ors and pu b lish ers — convenes and art ist ic programmers — so t h at ou r 5 0 t imes per y ear t o manage ou r societ y . creat ion w ill b e sh ow n t o au diences and O f cou rse, au t h or’ s righ t s are not u su ally w ill may b e encou nt er su ccess, depending t h e only sou rce of revenu e of many on t h e pu b lic’ s favors. W e even oft en creat ors, and most of u s h old ot h er © J . B . M illot need t o b ecome ou r ow n produ cer. j ob s. B u t t h is is b y no means new : B ach Au t h or’ s righ t s and collect ive w as a mat h emat ics t each er, Lisz t and management give u s some st ab ilit y . M endelssoh n w ere virt u oso pianist s and O u r collect ive management societ ies condu ct ors, F au ré w as direct or of t h e are h ere t o insu re t h at w h en ou r w ork s P aris Conservat ory … H ow ever, t h is does are b roadcast , b e it on t h e radio, on t h e not mean t h at ou r au t h or’ s righ t s are int ernet , on t elevision or in a concert not crmcial for mk2 t`ey are a ki_nificant h all, ou r au t h or’ s righ t s are collect ed part of ou r revenu es, and t h ey are t h e and du ly redist rib u t ed. S acem, for ret u rn on ou r creat ive invest ment . T h at inst ance, redist rib u t es 8 0 % of righ t s is w h y creat ors are alw ay s vigilant ab ou t “ w ork b y w ork , ” on t h e b asis of report s t h e evolu t ion of t h e legal environment of made b y b roadcast ers. T h is precision int ellect u al propert y righ t s. :uid\in_ a de_ad ^raeeoork to _uarantee ^air reoar\s ^or creators J an S ardi, screenw rit er, Au st ralia Au st ralia’ s cu lt u ral and creat ive indu st ries W it h t h e rapid ex pansion of plat forms in cont rib u t e U S $ 8 6 b annu ally ( 7 % ) t o t h e t h e digit al age, w e are det ermined t o see nat ional economy , and w rit ers simply Au st ralian copy righ t law s b rou gh t int o need t o h ave t h e righ t t o sh are in t h e t h e 2 1 st cent u ry and in h armony w it h ret u rns of t h e int ellect u al propert y t h ey int ernat ional b est pract ice. F u rt h ermore, creat e. Au st ralian w rit ers h ave long b een t h e b u siness models digit al t ech nologies disadvant aged b y a cont ract - b y - cont ract req u ire mean t h at collect ive management t reat ment of copy righ t and secondary of eq u it ab le remu nerat ion for creat ors roy alt ies, one w h ich oft en demands all is t h e only opt ion, t o ensu re t h ey are righ t s assignment s. rew arded for t h e ongoing ex ploit at ion of t h eir w ork . © J an S ardi | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries )(1

>roe É^ree ^or addÊ to Éhaq to distenÊ7 S oro S olo, cu lt u ral j ou rnalist and radio produ cer, P aris, F rance 9frican cmltmre `ak `ad a _reat inÖmence F or a long t ime, mu sic w as not T oday , t h e mu sic mark et in Africa needs on emkic all over t`e oorld$ inÖmencin_ considered as a commercial commodit y t o b e rest ru ct u red, t o offset t h e w eigh t mu sic genres su ch as B lu es, J az z , B ossa in Africa. It is st ill t ru e t oday , as radio of informal economy in t h e sect or. N ova, R u mb a and many ot h ers. As is a maj or mu sic dist rib u t ion ch annel: O rganiz ed creat ion and dist rib u t ion M art in S corsese su ccessfu lly sh ow ed in people list en t o mu sic on t h e radio all societ ies are needed t o resh ape h is movie Feel Like Going Home ( 2 0 0 4 ) , t h e t ime and every w h ere, and get it for b u siness models and cont ent creat ion b lu es is relat ed t o t radit ional mu sic from free. M u sic, and more w idely cu lt u re, h as processes, w h ile st rong copy righ t M ali and N iger. American G ospel and b ecome a commercial commodit y only collect ive management societ ies mu st b e rap mu sic rh y t h m are ot h er ex amples of recently$ oit` t`e develoheent of official su pport ed t o cu t t h e informal dist rib u t ion 9frican emkic inÖmence& sales net w ork s and dist rib u t ion ch annels, ch annels and prot ect au t h ors’ righ t s. T h is M u sic in Africa ou t reach es simple ex plaining t h e import ance of informal rest ru ct u rat ion h as t o b e led t h rou gh ent ert ainment : it h as a social and economy . B u t t h ere h ave b een h ist orical amb it iou s cu lt u ral policies and t h e polit ical fu nct ion. M u sic is play ed du ring precedent s: in t h e 1 9 0 0 s, “ H igh life, ” commit ment of African government s. fu nerals and w eddings; it eit h er describ es an emerging mu sical genre in G h ana, daily difficmltiek lice Eaeadom

Det us c`an_e t`is ateosh`ere Isao T omita, creat or and mu sician, J apan W h en I felt t h e creat ive energy w elling u p int egral part of my b eing ab le t o release inside me, I w ou ld complet ely immerse new sou nd recordings, and t o h old live my self in t h e creat ive process, even if it event s called “ S ou nd Clou d” all arou nd meant declining more lu crat ive proj ect s. t h e w orld. T h rou gh t h ese act ivit ies, my And t h e mu sic I creat ed w it h su ch an mu sic reach ed more ears, and I feel lik e I effort h ad cert ain persu asiveness. It w as given t h e opport u nit y t o t ry t o enrich seems t h ere are few er passionat e mu sic- t h e sou ls of t h ose w h o list ened. loving y ou ng people and less persu asive Lo continme to Zenefit froe kmc` mu sical w ork s ou t t h ere. And t h is opport u nit ies, w e mu st maint ain an at mosph ere t h at w e h ave in ou r societ y , environment in w h ich creat ors can t h at sligh t s t h is import ant cu lt u ral devot e t h emselves t o t h e act of creat ion, coehonent t`at ik emkic$ `ak definitely and w h ere new ly creat ed w ork s can b e h ad an adverse effect . delivered t o list eners w it h ou t any fear; in T h e advancement of t ech nology drives sh ort , an environment t h at nu rt u res t h e P h ot o b y Y asu h iro O h ara t h e mass consu mpt ion of mu sical w ork s cu lt u re of mu sic. T o t h is end, all creat ors t h rou gh large- scale mu sic st reaming w h o love mu sic from t h e b ot t om of t h eir services and ot h ers, b u t on t h e ot h er h eart s mu st mak e t h eir voices h eard t o A starte\ creatin_ eusic h and, t h is at mosph ere h as u ndou b t edly gain su pport from t h e general pu b lic. siehdq because o^ eq decreased t h e remu nerat ion creat ors T h e cu lt u re of mu sic enrich es ou r sou ls, a^^ection ^or eusic& received. M u sic creat ors su pport t h eir and nob ody w ant s t o see it decline. T h e lives w it h t h e remu nerat ion t h ey receive cu lt u re of mu sic is preciou s for t h e ent ire A share\ no hains to create for t h eir creat ions. B u t t h e effect s of h u man race, and it is ou r responsib ilit y t o t`e eusic t`at A done& b eing remu nerat ed go mu ch fart h er t h an pass it on t o t h e nex t generat ion. t h at . T h e remu nerat ion I received w as an | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries )))

L`e \e^ense o^ aut`orsÌ ri_`t is t`e ^oun\ation on o`ic` to buid\ a =urohe o^ cudture F ernando T rueba, file director$ Khain Au t h ors’ righ t s are a legacy of t h e men In E u rope, cu lt u re b rings more w ealt h — T h e defense of au t h ors’ righ t s is t h e w h o made E u rope t h e cent er of t h e inclu ding economic w ealt h — t h an any fou ndat ion on w h ich t o b u ild a E u rope int ellect u al w orld, men lik e J oh n Lock e ot h er indu st ry . Art , cu lt u re, t h e ab ilit y of cu lt u re. If w e fail t o prot ect au t h ors, and T h omas P aine, B eau march ais and t o deb at e are E u rope’ s main asset s, if w e fail t o defend t h eir int ellect u al, Condorcet , V olt aire and D iderot , K ant alt h ou gh t ou r polit icians somet imes moral and economic righ t s, w e w ill lose and H egel. forget it . In t imes lik e t oday , w h en it is t h e independence of ou r ideas and ou r E u rope is t h e cont inent of au t h ors’ more u rgent t h an ever t o relau nch t h e freedom of t h ou gh t . righ t s, t h e inalienab le moral righ t s of idea of E u rope, w e t ak e t h is opport u nit y art ist s and creat ors. t o st art — t h is t ime— w it h t h e fou ndat ions. *(),$ an excehtionad qear ^or Hodis` cineea A ndrzej W aj da, file director$ Holand P olish cinema h as b een gaining an Holik` filek in earced contrakt to t`e Anot h er seriou s prob lem is piracy . increasing int erest , b ot h int ernat ionally 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 t ick et s 1 0 y ears ago) . As a A 2 0 1 4 st u dy “ Analy sis of t h e impact and locally . Last y ear w as ex cept ionally resu lt nat ional mark et sh are at t ained of piracy of video cont ent on t h e su ccessfu l — P aw el P aw lik ow sk i’ s Ida w on nearly 3 0 % . economy in P oland” est imat ed t h at t h e O scar for t h e B est F oreign Langu age Alt h ou gh t h e online dist rib u t ion is in it s piracy cost P olish economy ab ou t F ilm and M algorz at a S z u mow sk a’ s Body early st age of development it is ex pect ed P LN 7 0 0 m ( € 1 6 0 m) . If legislat ive w as aw arded t h e S ilver B ear for t h e b est t o grow rapidly . U nfort u nat ely P olish ch anges are not made in t h e coming direct ion at t h e B erlin Int ernat ional F ilm copy righ t law does not secu re online y ears, t h e loss can ex ceed P LN 6 b F est ival. ephloitation royaltiek for fileeacerk$ ( € 1 . 4 b ) . OeÌve Zeen alko oZkervin_ a ki_nificant w h ich is t h e case for t h eat rical and T V _root` of Holik` Zoo office oit` eore ex ploit at ion. t h an 1 1 million t ick et s sold in 2 0 1 4 for | ))* Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

| Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries 113

thodology s me e c ailed our t De and s Objectives The main objective of this study — the first of its kind — is to produce a quantitative and qualitative estimate of the economic role of cultural and creative industries in the world. This reports aims to consolidate and put in perspective the set of existing national and global studies in a single, accessible and striking report, based on an innovative and robust methodology. | 114 Cultural times The first global map of cultural and creative industries

O`at \o oe eeasure7

An\icators L`ik ktmdy imantifiek ;;AÌk econoeic contriZmtion to t`e _loZal fees t h at can b e t rack ed w orldw ide) . An est imat e of economy , b ot h in t erms of revenu es and employ ment , in 2 0 1 3 . pu b lic fu nding h as b een calcu lat ed separat ely for all • ;;A revenmek2 L`e ktmdy adohted an ahhroac` Zaked on final CCI comb ined. consu mer mark et s, primarily t ak en at ret ail prices ( w it h ou t • CCI employ ment : W e est imat ed employ ment in nu mb er indirect t ax es) . of j ob s ( not in fu ll- t ime eq u ivalent s) . W e u sed t h e ILO ’ s • W e considered revenu es at t h e end of t h e valu e ch ain, definition of eehloyeent2 ÉHerkonk in eehloyeent rat h er t h an adding u p revenu e from all st ak eh olders coehrike all herkonk aZove a khecified a_e o`o$ dmrin_ a involved in individu al part s of t h e valu e ch ain. As an khecified Zrief heriod$ eit`er one oeec or one day$ oere illu st rat ion, for t h e b ook indu st ry revenu es est imat e, w e in t h e follow ing cat egories: paid employ ment and self- conkidered t`e final kalek of h`ykical and di_ital Zoock2 Zy employ ment . ” B y doing so, w e w ere ab le t o consider every definition$ all intereediate revenmek are inclmded& person w ork ing in a CCI ( inclu ding non- permanent j ob s; creat ors, au t h ors and performers) . • Informal sales of cu lt u ral goods and services h ave b een • Informal employ ment h as also b een inclu ded. inclu ded in ou r est imat es ( see b elow ) . • D evices sales h ave b een ex clu ded. • P u b lic employ ment h as b een inclu ded for each sect or, ex cept t h e performing art s, w h ere no reliab le dat a w as • G iven t h e lack of dat a, pu b lic su b sidies h ave not b een availab le t o mak e rob u st assu mpt ions. inclu ded in each sect or ( ex cept au diovisu al pu b lic license R evenues: what do we measure? Cultural and creative industries revenues B2C revenues B2B revenues Public revenues Ad spend License fees Legal sales of Informal sales CCI goods and of CCI goods services and services Informal economy T h e informal economy refers t o t h e u ndergrou nd economy , • Dokk of hrofit dme to hiracy$ ille_al doonloadin_ or ktreaein_ defined ak Éearcet%Zaked hrodmction of _oodk and kervicek$ h ave b een ex clu ded. o`et`er le_al or ille_al$ t`at ekcahek detection in t`e official • T h e informal economy h as b een inclu ded in ou r regional est imat es of G D P ” ( P . S mit h , 1 9 9 4 ) . kalek and eehloyeent fi_mrek& W e considered only t h e produ ct ion and dist rib u t ion of Informal sales and employ ment are est imat ed t h rou gh cu lt u ral goods and services t raded in informal mark et places illegal cu lt u ral goods sales rat ios est imat ed in a sample of in developing cou nt ries, u su ally at a low er price, w it h ou t any represent at ive cou nt ries ( w it h IF P I, nat ional ant i- piracy au t h ors’ righ t s collect ion. inktitmtek and earcet rehortk fi_mrek!$ and oit` data on t`e • Gnly 9frica$ 9kia%Hacific and Datin 9eerica `ave Zeen w eigh t of t h e informal economy ( O E CD , ILO ) . inclu ded in ou r informal economy est imat es, as t h e informal cu lt u ral mark et places in E u rope and N ort h America are not ki_nificant& | )). Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries

Digital economy D igit al play ers ( online ret ailers, st reaming plat forms, et c. ) are • O nline media advert ising ( for online media and free fu elled b y CCI cont ent . As t h is report aims t o h igh ligh t t h e st reaming services) impact of CCI on ot h er b ranch es of t h e economy , w e assessed • D igit al advert ising creat ion t h e revenu es generat ed b y cu lt u ral cont ent for digit al play ers, defined ak coehaniek hrovidin_2 CCI’ s economic cont rib u t ion t o t h e digit al economy is t h e su m of • P h y sical goods sold on t h e int ernet ( b ook s, mu sic and video) cu lt u ral- cont ent - generat ed revenu es. • D igit al cu lt u ral cont ent ( st reaming su b script ions, mob ile gaming, e- b ook s, et c. ) or earcetk$ t`e kme of re_ional fi_mrek epceeded t`e W h ere regional dat a w as not availab le, w e est imat ed glob al t ot al, as w e logically do not consider ex port s in t h e employ ment and revenu es t h rou gh t ailor- made assu mpt ions: conkolidated fi_mre& • W e scaled u p availab le dat a from t h e main mark et s in each • L`e kme of kectorial fi_mrek eehloyeent and boZk! alko region w it h a represent at ive sample ( for inst ance, B raz il, epceedk t`e conkolidated fi_mre in eac` re_ion$ ak koee M ex ico, Argent ina and Colomb ia for Lat in America) act ivit ies can b e cou nt ed in t w o CCI. F or inst ance, live mu sic • W e u sed w orld dat a and applied a mark et sh are scaling- dow n revenu es and employ ment are cou nt ed in b ot h t h e mu sic and fact or. herforein_ artk kectork& Lo conkolidate omr re_ional fi_mre$ w e dedu ct ed every act ivit y t h at is dou b le cou nt ed. • W h en ab solu t ely no dat a w as availab le for any cou nt ry in a region, w e u sed a rat io b ased on dat a collect ed in ot h er | Cultural times L`e Õrst _dobad eah o^ cudturad an\ creatine in\ustries ))/

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G olden M ask w eb sit e, 2 0 1 5 Indian M edia and E nt ert ainment Indu st ry R eport , F ICCI- K P M G , 2 0 1 4 Da econoeia naranba$ mna ohortmnidad infinita$ :anco Anteraeericano de

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